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Net neutrality and carrier hotel

Carrier hotels and big data centers offer telecommunications and network industries convenient locations to physically connect with other telecommunications companies, in a neutral facility that offers high density of available carriers. As telecommunications worldwide continue to move towards packet networks and services, the exchange of Internet protocols and interconnections will bring even more value to the global telecommunications community.

Large networks require compensation from smaller networks and content providers for the use of their infrastructure, while the Internet community generally requires free access (network neutrality) to that infrastructure that is used or contracted from large object-based networks. Carriers are key to the survival of smaller companies in the hopes of competing with established public utilities, including AT&T, Verizon and BellSouth.

Legislation such as HR 5252, without the special protection of network neutrality, will trigger the second tier of network providers to develop parallel infrastructure using wireless and physical cable, in addition to stronger interconnections that allow bypassing large network infrastructure. Carrier hotels support stronger connections between smaller networks and content providers by providing a neutral interconnecting environment, bypassing large wholesale network infrastructure or transit.

Internet layered hierarchy

In the last 15 years or so, the Internet has been divided into three main levels:

• Level 1 – backbone support. These first-order carriers are object-based and carry an entire routing table on the Internet. Providers of Internet networks commonly recognized as Tier 1 include Verizon (formerly UUNET / MCI Internet), Sprint, AT&T, and Cable & Wireless.

• Level 2 – regional and second level internet networks. However, it is usually object based but still relies on one of the first order for some routing and transit. These include cable TV networks, CLECs and international second-tier operators such as France Telecom Open Transit and Level 3.

• Level 3 – Access networks and networks of content providers.

Peering is a concept that allows networks to negotiate with one another that allows traffic to be transferred directly between their networks without having to use a higher level of transit. Paid peering is how Tier 2 and Tier 1 networks charge smaller networks to access their backbones or allow their network subscribers to access the rest of the world’s internet.

Net neutrality assumes that users will be able to control what type of content or applications they produce or access, regardless of the degree or quality of service. So, whether you pay for a dedicated port that is all you can eat or if you pay for a usage-based billing model, all you pay for is the ability to send and receive packages at the rate agreed in your upstream Tier 2 or Tier 1 contract network providers.

Existing legislation (HR5252) will give Tier 2 and Tier 1 carriers much greater control over the content produced and applications used by both Tier 3 networks and content providers / applications, but also limit how end users can use network applications. The most advertised example is voice over Internet or VoIP. The Tier 1 and Tier 2 networks claim that VoIP requires higher quality of service and therefore sets unreasonable demands on the home network. They further claim that content providers, such as Google and Yahoo, are able to add their content free of charge to users, free of charge or fee, to network providers used as transit networks.

Originally, the verb in HR5252 included a discussion of net neutrality. Net neutrality is the principle that "Internet users should have control over the content they browse and what applications they use on the Internet." From the beginning, the Internet operated on the principle of the neutrality of network service providers, fostering technical innovation, the development of Internet industries and the creation of a truly global community and market.

The internet was built with the idea of ​​openness, only occasionally questioned by restrictive governments who felt it necessary to restrict the freedom of citizens to access and view open information. With IPv6, governments will still consider Internet control a difficult proposition, as IPSEC will further exploit their ability to restrict or intercept data.

Hotel carriers and support for net neutrality

Hotels carriers are by nature real estate business. Carrier hotels make money by leasing or licensing prints, uninterrupted electricity, refrigeration, and connectivity. The more connections and networks present in an entity, the more important it is that ownership becomes a community of telecommunications providers and networks. The rationale is quite simple. If you are in a carrier hotel, you can generally connect to another network or carrier using a local cross connection, and in some cases, a simple "cable jumper". If you are geographically disconnected from a major carrier's hotel (such as One Wilshire, 60 Hudson, Westin Building or Telehouse) or are a tenant in an existing carrier-operated data center, then the cost of connecting to other network providers and mobile carriers will be significantly higher .

A hotel carrier like One Wilshire can have more than 300 carriers and service providers present as tenants in a single building. Most such tenants will have a direct presence in the building being managed in the building, allowing all carriers to have easy access to each other as they are all in close proximity.

Hotel carrier is a location where Tier 3 and Tier 2 networks as well as content and application providers can connect directly. This allows these networks to "spot" without the need to send traffic via transit or the large Tier 2/1 carrier. In many cases, smaller operators and content providers or applications can peek as equals, and money will not flow between networks. This is important in cases where a content provider may be sending a huge amount of traffic to small network users. Both the content provider and Network 3 are most likely to pay the agreed upstream arrangements, which will result in both companies and their customers paying essentially the same traffic.

Hotel carriers may also offer additional utilities or options for interconnecting Tier 2 and Tier 3 networks. Both One Wilshire and 60 Hudson manage service packet exchanges, enabling packet networks (Internet and Internet content / applications) to be interconnected via internet sharing. . Internet sharing, such as One2 Wilshire & # 39; s Any2 Exchange, allows network providers and content to connect to the exchange using a single high-speed connection and then connect to any or all other exchange participants without the need for physical cabling or consuming ports .

ByPass and Packet Exchange

The Internet is a rich environment that supports the continuous development of advanced technologies, products and services that enable communication. The three areas that have experienced rapid growth as well as growth are voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP), interactive entertainment such as multiplayer gaming, and rich on-demand media (video). All three require high-performance end-user access, and all three have the potential to generate large amounts of network traffic.

In our broadband approach, most end users are connected to their network of high capacity lines, whether ADSL, Internet via CATV lines or wireless. For an access network, getting a large amount of traffic to end users is usually not a big concern, rather paying for a large amount of traffic or high bandwidth connections can become a factor due to the high operational costs of connecting to an upstream network provider in a paid peer relationship.

In order to provide a positive end-user experience, which is obviously necessary to retain users, the access network and content provider must ensure that their users do not have "bottles" or traffic congestion points between interactive users or end points of content distribution.

The packages will flow

The internet was originally conceived as a highly viable network, allowing information packets to move around blocks and points of failure in any network. This ability to bypass blockages and points of failure has an unusual parallel in the dynamics of Internet-related business relationships.

Whenever an architecture or business model becomes too restrictive, an alternative model evolves or emerges. The internet community inherently desires neutrality and has historically found ways to circumvent restrictive networks and legal blockages, allowing users to communicate with one another freely, regardless of controls placed on network architecture, policy, security, and surveillance.

Like Internet packages, the Internet community will find ways around Tire 1 and service providers trying to restrict or restrict applications and services on the public Internet.

VoIP and the end of telephone networks

VoIP is closely monitored by the government, the telecommunications industry and, most importantly, the end-user community. Pricing, call quality and ease of use are all important topics, such as future regulation and the security implications of sending calls over a packet network.

VoIP not only has problems with the physical performance of the network, it must also look at the long-term issue of future convergence or integration of video, conferencing, application sharing and network presence. Today's world operates on a numbering system called E.164. E.164 is a recommendation of the International Telecommunications Union (ITU) for international and local telephone numbering systems. With VoIP, the E.164 numbering plan is gradually being replaced by network presence indicators, which simply "proxy" your desired identity either on the telephone or packet network and announce your availability for interactive or non-interactive communication.

Today, instant messaging user identity is the best example of an active network presence indicator, however, even IM engines are quickly adding interactive voice modules to their interface. This speech module could either be directly linked to the IM interface or be "proxied" to the interface via the presence directory.

The closer term "proxy" service is called ENUM. ENUM registers convert between E.164 phone numbering and network IP address or identity. Within neutral packet exchange, ENUM registers allow non-wholesale or supported VoIP operators to search the database of other VoIP phone numbers and forward VoIP calls to other IP networks<->IP, bypassing all traditional transit telephone carriers when completing or terminating a "call". If VoIP operators have peering agreements, this significantly reduces the amount that smaller VoIP carriers have to pay to telephone service providers when leaving or terminating telephone traffic, enabling operators to completely bypass the end-to-end VoIP telephone network.

As all networks continue to migrate to packet telephony, even ENUM will gradually become obsolete. However, as a utility available in neutral packet exchange, it could help many smaller networks save enough on operating costs to survive much longer than usual.

Content distribution

Hacking companies have been around for several years, with the most prominent (Akamai) being present in almost every major data center. The reason is simple – put your content as close to the user as possible, and the user will gain the best experience. Packet-sharing carrier hotels fully support content distribution. A company like Limelight, which distributes large quantities of on-demand media, thinks the hotel carrier is attractive because it allows the media to circumvent the need for an intermediary or transit network. The performance of the end user then depends entirely on the performance of the access network.

If net neutrality is not protected in HR5252, then this issue becomes more acute. Both access networks and content owners will have the added quality of service or fees for delivering large amounts of bandwidth and content applications – such as VOD or streaming media. On a packet exchange, the content provider can connect directly with all participants in the exchange and in most cases deliver the content directly through the exchange without paid peering.

Peering Internet Service Provider

The ultimate benefit a hotel carrier, especially a hotel carrier with a neutral internet or packet exchange service, can offer among their ISPs. In some cases, the dynamics of the Internet will justify sending most traffic through one or the other Tier 2 levels. You can enjoy the best possible performance, for the best possible price. However, as ISP continues to grow, the burden of paying transit or use fees to an upstream provider may justify direct connections between partners.

The transportation hotel easily accepts both physical interconnections and package exchange perings. Packet exchange is best if peering among a large number of peers is desirable and traffic volume is not too large. As traffic to one network increases, it is possible to redirect exchange traffic to a dedicated physical cross-link.

Conclusions

Hotel carriers and large neutral data centers are suitable for all levels of Internet networks, content providers and application providers. Given concerns about the lack of an effective version of neutrality within HR 5252, many Tier 2, Tier 3 and content / application providers are seeking hotel transportation and neutral internet exchange to circumvent Tier 1. Transit will allow smaller networks and content providers to better network and application among participating networks as well as reduced operating costs incurred by usage-based or port-based charges.