Fees, gang – Johnny "Dyo" Dyyagurdi

When there was a way to make an illegal buck, Johnny "Dyo" Dyyaguardi, which Bobby Kennedy called "a master work reketchyka" had their sticky fingers in the pot. In 1936 Dyo was so treacherous bandits, US Attorney Thomas E. Dewey argued that Dyo was: "The young gorilla, which began car & # 39; career at 15 years of age."

Johnny Dyo born Giovanni (John) Ignatsyo Dyyaguardi April 28, 1914 on Forsyth Street in downtown Manhattan. In Dyo were three brothers: Frank and Vincent, who were legitimate guys, and Thomas, or Thomas, who became like Johnny Dyo, Capo in the family & # 39; and Lyuchesa crimes. In Dyo it was also an unnamed sister, that can only be identified as "Mrs. Dyyagurdi-Pryzola".

Father Giovanni B. Dyo Dyyaguardi, who had a bicycle shop, was killed in August 1930 in the street on Coney Island, the police called the "execution associated with the Mafia." It seemed a senior Dyyaguardi and other enterprising gentleman deprived of a rich lady of her jewelery, and the two men argued over how to divide the revenues. Senior Dyyaguardi, who has twice been arrested for the murder, but was never convicted, made six shots in different parts of the body, and, presumably, another gentleman kept all the decorations.

Johnny Dyo graduated from high school, but less than two years in high school Styuysasant, Dyo refused and went to work at his uncle on the mother's gangster James "Jimmy Doyle" Plumer. Still handsome Dyo (which spoke as if a silent film star Rudolph Valentino) has gained a reputation in the Far East Side as a hard youth, who terrorized the street vendors, giving him a good part of their products for free. Uncle Jimmy Doyle (no one called his real name Plumer), recognizing the talents of Dio to razboynitstva immediately put Dyo a job as shlamera (lamalnika) in a clothing center for Jewish colleagues Doyle Louis "sculpting" Buhaltera and partner modeling Jacob "Gura" Shapiro , which is affectionately called "boys Gorilla". Modeling, along with Albert "High Executioner" Anastasia, was the leader of Murder Incorporated, a group of stone killers who killed those mafioznyya bosses in New York and across the country have stated that it is necessary to kill. However, there is evidence that Dyo never joined the group avgustskay. Specialty Dio was associated with union extortion, and in this he was the pinnacle of his craft.

Dyo and Doyle founded the association of motor vehicles, with the result that truckers who work in the garment center, were forced to join the truckers union, which, of course, led by Dyo and Doyle. If a poor cottager decided he did not want to join a union, a trip to the hospital is inevitable, if not a trip to the morgue. Organizational contributions are hefty, but at any price they had to pay, and it's really a small price to provide summer resident health. Of course, the "union dues" and were not included in the union coffers (instead it went straight into the pocket of Dyo and Doyle), and false books were created to satisfy those who choose to learn about the financial solvency of the carrier's union.

truckers union members even told where to spend their money and how much to spend on certain things. Dyo and Doyle were members of the local barber, and they ordered his truck driver zastupnichats on this special barber in the beautiful melody $ 2.50 per month. Truckers also told where you can buy wine, where to buy meat and where to buy clothes, and how much to spend on each item, which, of course, was not at competitive prices.

For several years, in 1930 Dyo and Doyle, but no one could stop them in the cabin working clothes sweet. In addition to extortion truckers dynamic duo Dyo and Doyle also profited from the other end of the totem pole. They made clothing apparel manufacturers Center (chiefs) to use only union truckers. They then used their union truckers to buldozits clothing manufacturers to pay a huge fee for the book, in order to maintain their business and be profitable.

If clothing manufacturers refused to pay extortion fees, Dyo and Doyle ordered their union truckers begin strike, putting a dead end to the cash flow garment manufacturer. In some cases, when the bosses did not play ball, union thugs (shlamamery) broke his fingers, arms and legs superiors; and sometimes all three parts of the body in one visit. In an extreme case, as if the chief threatened to talk to the federation, on stage there will be guys with the murder of modeling, and after a few seconds chatty boss will come to the ground and his feet.

In 1932 and 1933 Dyo and Plumer were charged twice for extortion, but both times beaten the rap, as their victim refused to talk with the federations. In 1934 Dyo lucky to choose the executive secretary of the mutual association of employers allies. Despite the fact that Dyo was the head of the union of truckers, he represented his employers during a strike in 1150. Commander in September 1934.

Nice work, if you get it.

However, in 1937 and Dyo, and Doyle is not lucky. Nephew and uncle duo were accused of extortion and "hard attack". During the trial, alleging that Dyo and Doyle, as well as several other teens their gang extorted $ 500 for each trucker. In addition, they allegedly made garment manufacturers to add a healthy "fare" to each suit, coat and trousers, made in the sewing center. This rate went straight into the pocket of Dyo and Doyle, and it increased the value of the good for the general public.

Sweet deal indeed.

According to an article in the New York Daily Mirror, "At the trial, the frightened witnesses showed how unruly the employer and employees were beaten when they refused to pay. One man said he was bedridden for two weeks after the attack. Another said that bullies They threatened to cut off his ears. "

Realizing that they were dead in the water, during a session of the trial and Dyo, and Doyle found guilty. Instead, they got a free room and boarding house in the northern prison Sing Sing, for a period of three to five years.

After his release from prison Dyo decided that New York was too hot for him, and he moved to Allentown, Pennsylvania, where he stood for a long time to open its own plant for the production of dresses; Of course, of course. He later sold the factory, and to ensure that the new owners will not have problems, Dyo took 11,200 dollars under the table to make sure that his former company will nesayuznym.

Dyo drove back to New York and using the same tactics that he used in Allentown, created dresses wholesalers. Using the profits from the business, Dyo was smart enough to buy legitimate businesses, which included real estate and motor vehicles. He also tried his hand at the stock market, which caused him to go as the IRS just another citizen who pays taxes. But NYPD knew better. They just were not able to fix anything illegal on Dyo, although they continued to try.

Returning to his old neighborhood Forsyth Street, Dyo decided to create something & # 39; S. He married the former Ene Hrostek (non-Italians). She bore into Dia two sons (Philip and Dominic) and a daughter (Rosemary) that sad died of an unknown disease. It was at this time Dyo, forty years old, was officially involved in the offense something & # 39; and Luchessa, which made it even more untouchable in the streets of New York. Despite the fact that the father they were only Italians, both sons Dyo eventually went to his father's footsteps in a life of crime. Dyo Philip, who was called "Fat Philly", was later involved in the family & # 39; nd Colombo criminals, while Dominique, like his father, became a man in the family & # 39; and Lyuches crimes.

(Editors note: Rules Mafia have changed about this time, to allow more members of the introduction of "Honored Society" fill in the gaps of those who either were killed or sent to a conservative bank, "college", as the Mafia likes to call this time only your father (not both parents) had to be Italian, so you got "a button," If your mother was Italian, and your father neitalyanskay -. you plyuli on luck breaks)..

Until the 1950s, Dio has become a powerful Captain (Capo) in the family & # 39; and crimes Lyuchesskaga and money, which were thrown in a trunk in the pack (he reportedly earned $ 100 000 a week), he began to live the life of colonial Baron. In the early 1960s Dio moved with his family & # 39; s in a spacious mansion on Fryport, Long Island, Dyo cost 75 000 dollars in cash (Dyo disliked banks and bank loans). During the week Dyo ate with their horses in the best snacks in New York (his favorite was fashionable Stackhouse Black Angus). But, as the Italian custom of Sunday were strictly for family & # 39; and (famiglia). Inviting family members & # 39; and and close friends, Dyo was proud that he was a cook and was personally able to cook the best Italian delicacies to please your guests. Dyo has been particularly kind to his wife, whom he loved (unlike most of the mobs of men, Dyo has been faithful to his wife). Instead of personally buying Christmas gifts to his wife, Dyo gave her a shoebox full of money, with a little note: "Buy yourself a nice clothes, nice."

During the 1950s, thanks to relations with the leaders of Teamster New York, Martin Leis and John O & # 39; Rourke, Dyo became dense friend with a big wig Teamster Jimmy Hoffa. Dyo Hof and first met at a secret meeting in a hotel room in New York, and Hoff, who had hoped to remove the Teamster president Dave Beck found that Dyo his union would be the perfect person with whom you can be friends. At the end of 1955 Dyo was able to obtain the status of the Teamsters to create seven Teamster locals, called "paper locals" as they did not have the actual commanders. Roles were filled with family and friends, Dio, and vote for the president's team was in the back pocket Hofy.

Dyo operation mode for more than 30 years was as follows: control the unions, and then use the unions as a sledgehammer over his head chiefs. Dio said superiors: "Pay up, or my boys will go on strike." Bosses always paid, the workers always pin, and Dyo each time turned out like a bandit.

During its glorious criminal penalties & # 39; EASURES Dyo controlled trade unions harm to its members to such an extent that during the McClellan hearings in 1950 on organized crime, the Committee issued a statement: "This is not to say, using the widest possible latitude, Johnny Dyyaguardi was ever interested in improving the working of fate. "

Known for his coat mafia Joe shaft for 12 years, he owned a factory of clothes on Prospect Avenue in the Bronx. Once the shaft said: "I have never belonged to any union if I got into any trouble, any organizer of trade unions came, everything I needed to do – call Johnny Dyo, and all my problems have been corrected.".

However, in 1956, when elections to the team approached, and they planned to control, and in Hofy Dyo was a stone in the shoe, and his name was on the & # 39; united columnist Victor Ryzelem.

Victor Ryzel born March 16, 1913 on the Lower East Side of Jewish parents in a mixed Italian / Jewish district, not far from where Dio rose. Victor's father, Nathan Ryzel, was very active in trade union activities and was instrumental in the creation of Bonaza, Singer and Unions hard embroiderers. In 1913, he also helped organize local 66 of the International Union of working women's clothing, and was soon elected secretary-treasurer of the union, and then, finally, president.

When Victor Ryzel was a small child, his father taught him to speak with the union speeches that young Victor vehemently union meetings and public trade union meetings. Nathan Ryzel was fierce anti-Communist, and he was badly interfered with the Communists into his locals. Victor saw his father many times back home, beaten and bloody in battles with communist activists or Gangsta (impudent), which hired the owners of the factory, to disperse the strike of trade unions, which was Nathan Ryzel. Youth Victor Ryzelya notes that the gangsters were the basis of legitimate trade unions.

In 1926, Nathan Ryzel moved with his family & # 39; s in the Bronx, where Victor studied and graduated with honors from high school Morris. Still in high school earned Ryzel "thong" for several newspapers across America. His works were mostly about the labor movement in the United States, and how they interfere with "element gangster", which sought to play both ends of the spectrum, extending into the trade unions, and then worked at vendors bosses to physically suppress any union strikes or demonstrations . In 1928 Ryzel enrolled in night classes at the City College of New York (CCNY), which hosted the courses on human resource management and industrial relations. To support himself during a visit to a night school, Ryzel worked on hard work, both in metallurgy and in pilaramennym plant. When he was in college, Ryzel also worked as a columnist, then editor of the student newspaper. In addition to the writings of the columns of the labor movement, Ryzel also wrote columns on various topics such as literature and theater.

While studying in college, to get the necessary experience in the outer world of newspapers, Ryzel took a job as a boy from the general office in the journal "New Leader", political and cultural weekly, which was both a liberal and anti-communist. Ryzel cut his teeth in the business, doing everything he ordered the heads of the newspaper, including sweeping the floor and writing a column for the newspaper. In 1940, after 12 years of hard work, both at school and at school, Ryzel finally received his Bachelor of Business Administration from CCNY. He was offered a job Chief Editor of "New Leader", and he took this work with determination to rid the trade unions of "banditry".

Ryzel caught his first big break when in 1941 he took a job as a columnist The New York Post. In 1948, when the "Mail" Change of Control, Ryzel switched to "New York Daily Mirror", the newspaper owned by magnate William Randolph Hearst. By 1956, the column was about Ryzelya & # 39; combined 193 throughout the US newspapers. In the same year Ryzel started to work together with the United States Attorney Paul Williams with a clear objective to take the bandits, who ruled the trade unions in the garment and transportation in New York.

It was a double hostility Dyo for Johnny, who was actively involved in both the trade unions, and for Jimmy Hoffa, who tried to remove Dave Beck as head of the command.

April 5, 1956 Ryzel asked to become a guest host radio show show WMCA Barry Gray. Recently Ryzel spoke in conversation in the columns, which related to the International Union for the operational engineering and its president William Dekaninga Jr., who, according to Ryzel, agreed with a known gangster working for Joseph Fay peravstanovki parents Dekaninga Dekaninga William Sr. as president of the union. . Senior Dekaning just come out of the banks after the conclusion of extortion and Ryzel considered that the absence of senior Dekaninga to union president will be a disaster.

As a result of his columns on DeKonings and Fay, Ryzel received numerous death threats. However Ryzel abandoned them, knowing that only a fool would damage the distinguished representative of the press. This will certainly lead to a hard violation of the law on all reketnyh on & # 39; unity and racketeering.

In this particular radio show Ryzel invited two members of the International Union for maintenance engineers, who challenged DeKonings to control the union. It's not very good it was not Johnny Dyo or Jimmy Hoffa, who both thought Ryzel will start to shoot at them next.

The show originated in Gray Hutton & # 39 restaurant; s on Lexington Avenue and 47th Street. After the show, which ended at 2 am, Ryzel and his secretary went to the restaurant Lindy's, on Broadway between 49th and 50th Street to grab a bite to eat and to flood the food steaming hot coffee. (Ironically, it was the same restaurant Linda, in front of which in 1912 was shot small gambler Herman Rosenthal.)

At about 3 am Ryzel and his secretary came from Linda and started walking to a parked car Secretary on 51 th Street. Ryzel wore glasses to work, but when he was in public, for the sake of appearances, he usually takes off his glasses. Only if Ryzel and his secretary approached the Secretary-machine Ryzel took off his glasses, put them in a box and put the bag in the breast pocket of his overcoat. A tall, thin man who wore a blue and white jacket, jumped out of the shadows of Mark Hellinger Theater and threw a bottle containing sulfuric acid Ryzelya eyes, making Ryzelya blind for life. Then he stepped forward and quietly disappeared into the night. Пасля гэтага Рызель апрануў сонечныя акуляры, каб засцерагчы грамадскасць ад вачэй яго моцна знявечаных вачэй.

На наступны дзень пасля нападу Daily Mirror прапанавала ўзнагароду ў 10 000 долараў за інфармацыю, якая прывяла да захопу і асуджэння нападніка Рызеля. Гільдыя Амерыкі, Нью-Ёркскія фотакарэспандэнты, Нью-Йоркская асацыяцыя рэпарцёраў і заморскі прэс-клуб вылучыліся яшчэ пяццю ўрачыстымі. Менш чым за тыдзень ахвяраванні розных груп, у тым ліку прафсаюзаў і радыёстанцыі WMCA, павялічылі ўзнагароду да $ 41 000.

У жніўні 1956 г. ФБР канстатаваў, што некалькі надзейных, якія не такія надзейныя, ФБР канстатаваў, што нападнік Рызеля быў маленькім капюшонам Абрагама Тэльві. Адзіная праблема была ў тым, што Тэльві зараз памёр; відаць, быў забіты 28 ліпеня, таму што ён запатрабаваў яшчэ 50 000 долараў, акрамя таго, што 500 долараў ЗША яму заплацілі за кіданне кіслаты ў твар Рызеля.

29 жніўня Дыё быў арыштаваны за змову ў выніку нападу Рызеля. Дыё не прызнаў сябе вінаватым і быў вызвалены па аблігацыі 100 000 долараў.

22 кастрычніка прыяцель Дзіо Джозэф Карліна прызнаў сябе вінаватым у наняцці Тэльві для нападу на Рызель. Карліна ўцягнуў двух іншых мужчын – Гандольфа Маранці і Дамініка Банда, як саўдзельнікаў у наняцці Тэльві. Карліна таксама сказаў, што Дыё ў рэшце рэшт аддаў загад аб нападзе. Дзіё адказаў правам на вядучага адваката ў Нью-Ёрку, і ягоны адвакат змог атрымаць суд над Дыё, які быў аддзелены ад судовага працэсу над Маранці і Банда.

У ходзе судовага працэсу і Маранці, і Банда пацвердзілі сцвярджэнне Карліна, што Дыё распачаў напад на Рызеля. Маранці і Банда былі прызнаныя вінаватымі ў змове. Але вынясенне прысуду зацягнулася, пакуль не скончыўся суд над Дыё.

Адвакат Дыё змог адкласці судовы працэс на амаль паўгода, і за гэты час у Маранці і Банда пачаліся страты памяці. Калі судовы працэс над Дыё нарэшце пачаўся, і Маранці, і Банда адмовіліся ад сваіх паказанняў і, не пацвердзіўшы заяву Карліна, што Дыё загадаў атаку Рызеля, усе абвінавачанні супраць Дыё былі зняты. Маранці атрымаў 8-16 гадоў пазбаўлення волі, Бандо 2-5 гадоў пазбаўлення волі і яшчэ 5 гадоў за непавагу да суда. Дзіўна, але Карліна атрымаў умоўны тэрмін за дапамогу закону ў асуджэннях Маранці і Банда. Аднак незалежна ад таго, як сітуацыя была разведзена альбо не высветлена ў судзе, Дыё назаўсёды запомніўся як чалавек, які "асляпіў Віктара Рызеля".

У кастрычніку 1956 года Дыё быў абвінавачаны разам з некалькімі афіцыйнымі супрацоўнікамі Teamster аб вымаганні і абвінавачанні ў змове. У абвінавачанні гаворыцца, што Дыё вымагаў грошай вадзіцеляў грузавых аўтамабіляў у Нью-Ёрку, а таксама вымагаў грошы ў вытворцаў швейных цэнтраў адзення, каб яны не забастоўвалі тых жа вадзіцеляў грузавікоў. У абвінавачанні таксама ўваходзіла нібыта вымагальніцтва ўладальнікаў канцтавараў у Нью-Ёрку, чые мужчыны Дзіё правялі пікет. Уладальнікі крамы нібыта сказалі, што калі яны хочуць, каб пікетаванне спынілася, яны павінны былі прымусіць сваіх супрацоўнікаў далучыцца да Teamster Local 295 і наняць фірму "Працоўны кансалтынг" Джоні Дзіо, "Справядлівы (не)" навуковы супрацоўнік, на 3 500 долараў, і 200 долараў заробку ў месяц.

Паколькі адвакаты Дзіё былі настолькі спрытнымі ў тактыцы затрымкі, і той факт, што асноўныя ўрадавыя сведкі адмаўляліся ад сваіх паказанняў, суд над Дыё праходзіў толькі ў лістападзе 1957 года.

Разгляд справы доўжыўся чатыры тыдні, але калі закончыўся, Дыё быў асуджаны як абвінавачаны і прысуджаны да двух гадоў пазбаўлення волі. Знаходзячыся ў турме, Дыё зноў быў прад'яўлены абвінавачанні ў вымаганні. На гэты раз, замест таго, каб пацярпелыя былі ўладальнікамі канцтавараў, яны сталі ўладальнікамі крам для гальванізацыі. У 1958 годзе Дыё быў зноў асуджаны, і на гэты раз суддзя кінуў кнігу на Дыё, прысудзіўшы яго да 15-30 гадоў. Дыё пачаў адбываць свой час у турме Сінг Сінг, абскарджваючы пры гэтым пакаранне. 23 чэрвеня 1959 г. апеляцыйны суд па незразумелых прычынах адмяніў гэтае рашэнне ў ходзе судовага працэсу над Дыё, сказаўшы, што, паколькі Дыё асабіста не выдаваў пагрозы, ён не павінен быў быць асуджаны за вымагальніцтва. Раскол суда пастанавіў: "Вымаганне не можа здзяйсняць той, хто сам не выклікае страху, але хто атрымлівае грошы з мэтай выдалення альбо распаўсюджвання ранейшага страху, які прышчапляюць іншыя".

Джонатан Квітні сказаў у сваёй кнізе «Замкнёныя кругі»: «Здаецца, рашэнне легітымізавала ўсю мэту мафіі».

Аднак закон не быў скончаны з Джоні Дыё. 24 чэрвеня 1959 г., праз гадзіну пасля таго, як ён скончыў свой двухгадовы кавалак першага абвінавачання ў вымаганні, Дыё быў заціснуты федэральнымі і абвінавачаны ва ўхіленні ад выплаты падатку на прыбытак; за нявыплату падаткаў для трох прадпрыемстваў вытворчасці адзення, якія яму належаць (безумоўна, прафсаюзных), і двух мясцовых прафсаюзных жыхароў. Дыё пайшоў на разгляд у сакавіку 1960 года. Яго прызналі вінаватым і прысудзілі да чатырох гадоў у федэральнай турме ў штаце Джорджыя ў Атланце. Дыё быў вызвалены ў сакавіку 1963 г., часткова на падставе таго, што ён уладкаваўся на працу ў законнай галіне. Дыё сцвярджаў, што зараз з'яўляецца прадаўцом для спажыўцоў Kosher Provision Company, яшчэ адной фіктыўнай працай, якая давала Дыё магчымасць рабіць тое, што рабіў у шэрагу іншых галін прамысловасці. На гэты раз гэта была кашэрная мясапрадукцыя, якая заплаціла дударам за макіавельскія махінацыі Дыё.

Спачатку афера працавала як шарм. Дыё і куча ягоных прыяцеляў-мафіёзаў асобна падышлі да дзвюх канкуруючых кашерных мясных кампаній і пераканалі абодвух, што іх бізнес будзе разбураны, калі яны не наймуць сваю групу бандытаў, каб адбіцца супраць групы бандытаў іншай кампаніі. Дзве канкуруючыя кампаніі – "Consumers Kosher Provision Company", якой кіруе дуп па імені Герман Роўз, і American Kosher Provision Inc., у якога быў наёмны мафіят Макс Блок (ён толькі што быў вымушаны сысці ў адстаўку на пасадзе кіраўніка мясной прафсаюза). Упэўненыя, што іншыя мафіёзы не спрабавалі ўціснуць амерыканскага кошера. Мышцы Блока былі забяспечаны генэвезскім бандытам Ларэнца "Чапці" Брэшыа, які гадамі вымагаў мясніцкага саюза. Па дадзеных Vicious Circles, Блок атрымліваў ад амерыканскага кошернага заробку 50 000 долараў у год, а скарачэнне Брэшыа склала 25 000 долараў у год.

Менавіта тут Дыё пачаў займацца сваёй магіяй у кашэрнай мясной справе. Праз двух пасярэднікаў Дыё звярнуўся да Герман Роўз і пераканаў Роўз, што для таго, каб пазмагацца з амерыканцам Кошер, неабходна было наняць Роуз Джоні Дыё, каб абараніць яго інтарэсы. Роўз палічыў, што гэта правільна зрабіць, і ён наняў Дзіё з зарплатай 250 долараў у тыдзень; не празмерная колькасць грошай. Але гэта дазволіла Дыё стварыць сумленную працу і дала мафіі магчымасць кантраляваць цэны ў дзвюх вядучых кашерных мясных кампаніях у гэтым раёне. (Вось чаму, за адну ноч, кошт кошту на мяса ўзрасла.)

Пасля таго, як Герман Роўз памёр у 1964 годзе, Дыё пераканаў сям'ю Кляйнбергаў, якая валодала большасцю акцый у спажывецкай кошернай, што добра было злівацца з амерыканскай кошернай справай. Клайнберг, дрыжачы ў ботах, пагадзіўся з ацэнкай Дзіё, і калі мафія абедзвюх кампаній пачала працу, "бюст-аут" у кашернай мясной прамысловасці пачаўся ў поўным запаленні.

Неўзабаве Дыё і яго сябры, выкарыстоўваючы сваю звычайную тактыку, пачалі забіраць і стваралі з нуля іншыя невялікія кошерныя мясныя кампаніі. Запасы пераносіліся туды і назад паміж кампаніямі, а таксама актывы, у якія ўваходзіла і само кашарнае мяса. Па-першае, спажывец кошер збанкрутаваў; потым зрабіў амерыканскі кошер. Іншыя кампаніі, якія кантралявалі Дыя, пачалі набываць мяса (якое не было аплачана), і па чарзе яны таксама абвясцілі аб банкруцтве, толькі каб набыць іншую фіктыўную кампанію, якой называюць газеты, "Кошерная Ностра". " Пастаўшчыкі мяса на захад, з-за шматлікіх працэдур банкруцтва, былі жорстка выплачаны за выплату мяса. Па словах рэпарцёра New York Post Марвіна Смілона, у аднаго з пастаўшчыкоў мяса была зададзена спытаць аднаго з мясной таварышаў Дыя: "Чаму мы маем справу з Дыё?" Яму сказалі: "Сядзьце і маўчыце. Задаеце занадта шмат пытанняў".

Але ўсё добрае павінна скончыцца. У 1966 годзе Дыё, разам з чатырма яго паплечнікамі, былі абвінавачаны ў «фальсіфікацыі банкруцтва». У 1967 годзе ўсе былі прызнаныя вінаватымі, і Дыё быў асуджаны на пяць гадоў пазбаўлення волі. Аднак, дзякуючы сваім магутным адвакатам, якія працуюць над сваёй магіяй, Дыё змог застацца па-за кратамі амаль чатыры гады. Гэта дало Дыё дадатковы час, неабходны яму для працы над чарговай афёрай, якая атрымала назву "Вялікая вайсковая мафія.

Усё пачалося з Бэна Уілнера, які меў машыну, з якой можна вырабляць аўтаматычныя абаранкі, прыкладна за 50 капеек бубліка, у той час як ручны пракат каштаваў каля 65 цэнтаў. Гэта не было добрай навіной для прафсаюза работнікаў хлебапрадуктаў і кандытараў, таму што гэта ставіла пад пагрозу працоўныя месцы іх членаў. Уілнер быў добрым сябрам з Мо Штэйнманам, які не надта дбаў пра тое, як вырабляюцца абаранкі, бо ён быў задушаным па распаўсюджванні абаранак, а не па вытворчасці бублікаў. Уілнер падбег да Штайнмана, і Штайнман, спадзеючыся выратаваць руку, пазнаёміў Уільнера з Джоні Дыё, якога Штэйнман ведаў, як эксперт па "працоўных праблемах". Дыя, зразумела, дапамог Уілнеру за кавалак пірага, і неўзабаве Штэйнман пакуе ў супермаркеты дзе-небудзь ад 3000 да 4000 даляраў абаранкаў Уілнера на тыдзень.

Адзіная праблема заключалася ў тым, што генуэзскі капо-сямейны капо Томас "Томі Раян" Эболі меў уласнага вытворца бублікаў, якога нядоўга мянялі з-за машыннага трыо "Willner / Dio". Гэтага чалавека назвалі Артурам Гольдбергам, і ён пабег да Эболі, крычаючы. Эболі запатрабаваў сядзення з Дыё, які быў у сям'і Лючэс больш за 30 гадоў. У той час, калі ў чарговым парадку мафіі ў Нью-Ёрку, Сям'я Генуэзскіх была значна больш магутнай, чым Сям'я Лючэс, і Дыё быў эфектыўна назаўсёды выцеснены з хатняй справы. Дыё перадаў Вільнеру дрэнныя навіны, і ў выніку ў снежні 1969 г. Уілнер быў вымушаны зачыніць краму. Гэта прывяло да таго, што экіпаж Эболі / Гольдберга ўзяў на сябе справу Вілнера і яго аўтаматызаваныя машыны для вырабу бублікаў.

Дыё адчуваў сябе страшным з-за страты сваёй абараначнай схемы, але яму стала яшчэ горш, калі ў лістападзе 1970 г. ён скончыўся зваротамі і быў вымушаны пайсці ў турму на пяцігадовы тэрмін у федэральнай турме ў Льюісбургу, P.A. аб абвінавачванні ў фальсіфікацыі банкруцтва. (Ён не праходзіў ісці, і ён не збіраў звычайныя дзвесце долараў.)

У 1972 годзе, яшчэ знаходзячыся ў турме, Дыё зноў быў прад'яўлены абвінавачванні, на гэты раз за махлярства з акцыямі, якія тычацца лізінгавай фірмы At Your Service Leasing. Як сцвярджалася, у 1969 годзе, перад тым, як Дыё трапіў у турму, Дыё разам з Кармін Трамунці, Вінцэнтам Алоем і Майклам Хелерманам "праплыў" 300 000 долараў фальшывых акцый у кампаніі па лізінгу аўтамабіляў. Затым група Дыё альбо падкупляла, альбо прымушала прадаўцоў прадаваць акцыі, а потым перадавала грошы інвестыцыйнай групе Dio. Прысяжныя прызналі Дыё вінаватым, і яго збілі пасля таго, як ён быў нанесены на дзевяць і дзесяцігадовы тэрмін турэмнага зняволення. Дзіо абскардзіў свае асуджэнні двойчы, але ён страціў абедзве апеляцыі.

Джоні "Дыё" Дыягуардзі ніколі больш не быў вольным чалавекам. Дыё памёр 12 студзеня 1979 года ў шпіталі Пенсільваніі, куды яго перавялі з федэральнай турмы. Каб дадаць абразу траўме, Дыё быў прызначаны ўмоўна-датэрміновае вызваленне ўсяго за некалькі кароткіх месяцаў.

Вестка пра смерць Джоні Дыё не атрымала ні цалі месца ў ніводнай нью-ёркскай штодзённай газеце, хаця платнае паведамленне пра смерць з'явілася праз некалькі дзён пасля яго смерці ў газеце New York Daily News.

Гэта было так, быццам Джоні Дыё, гангстэрскага гангстэра, калі б існаваў такі, ніколі не існаваў.

Ganbavalniki – Carlo Gambino

He was a quiet man, who dressed quietly and, as we know, never lost his temper. But undeniably, Carlo Gambino, with his huge nose hawk and an enigmatic smile, was one of the strongest Babi monsters of all time.

Gambino was born August 24, 1902 in Palermo, Sicily. Palermo area called Kakuma, where Gambino grew up, had a hard presence in the mafia, the police and even the military were afraid to enter her domain. What was left unpunished mafia managed areas, knowing that they do not inform the police, when the police even going through what is happening there.

Mother's maiden name was Charles Castellano, and she used her influence with his family & # 39; it has been Mafiosam to introduce Gambino with "respect men" when Gambino was barely a teenager. Gambino, who was slightly built and only 5-foot-7, quietly impressed bosses with his calmness, intelligence and ability to do what needed to be done, even if it means killing anyone who had killed.

In 1921 before the twentieth anniversary of the Gambino was awarded for good performance, the introduction of the mafia, or what was known in Italy as "Honored Society". However, because of vendettas Mussolini Benito against the mafia (Mussolini arrested many mobsters, including the main mafia don Vito mowed Ferro, who was sentenced to life imprisonment), many mobsters, including Gambino decided that Sicily was for them too dangerous to exist in such a way as they were accustomed to. The result has been a huge outflow Mafiosa on a mountain of gold across the Atlantic under the name America.

At the end of 1921, the Gambino left Sicily on a cargo ship SS Vincenzo Flaryo, who went to America. Throughout the trip Gambino burned only wine and anchovies, which, in addition to olive oil, were the only food substances on the ship.

December 23, 1921 esesant Vincenzo Flaryo prychalivsya in Norfolk, Virginia, and Gambino landed as an illegal migrant. Wearing natural trohkampanentny suit and black fedoru, Gambino gangplanku walking along, looking for the car, and he said that when he went to Palermo, will be waiting for him when he gets to America, with flashing lights at the end of the pier. He noticed the car, and when he arrived at her cousin saw Gambino Castellano, who was sitting behind the wheel. The two men embraced, and in seconds they went to New York.

If Gambino came to New York, he was pleased to see that his cousins ​​Castellano has rented him an apartment on Navy Street in Brooklyn, near the waterfront. They are also forced to work in the Gambino trucking company owned by his first cousin of Peter and Paul Castellano. Soon Gambino became interested in the pantry illegal business, driven by his partner from Palermo Tommy Luchesa. The ban was initiated adoption of the law "Volsted" in 1919, which banned the manufacture, sale or transportation of alcoholic beverages, but their consumption. The thing led to another, and soon the Gambino was the main cog in the crew Joe "Matter" Masseryi, the most powerful mafia in America.

However, another Mafiosa escaped the wrath of Mussolini and arrived in America in the mid-1920s. His name is Salvatore Maranzano, the second team to don Vito Ferro mowed in Sicily. Maranzano considered that the Sicilian mafia far exceeds those in America, so it is natural that it should become a major mafia boss in America. It was not well with Masseryyay, and the result was Kastelammarezskaya war that flooded the streets of New York, dozens of corpses 1929-31 biennium.

Masseryi crew soon joined senior mafia men like Lucky Luciano, Frank Costello, Albert Anastasia and Vita Geneveze who were well connected with Jewish gangsters Meyer Lansky and Bugsy Siegel. However, since Masseryi did not like that his people do business with non-sitsyliyanami (Castello currently Castile name, originally from Calabria), Luciano, Costello, Anastasia and Genevese doing their time, hoping that maybe, Musser and Maranzano pub & # 39; by each other, to the younger men could control all his actions.

However, it Gambino took the first step in correcting this situation. Feeling that he is on the losing side, Gambino secretly went to Maranzano and offered to go to the side of Maranzano. Maranzano readily agreed, and soon Luciano, Costello and Anastasia Geneveze also wanted to join the Maranzano forces. Maranzano accepted their offer, provided that they do away with Maseryyay once and for all. This task was completed April 15, 1931, when Luciano lured into the restaurant Musser Nuova Villa Tammaro in Coney Island. While Luciano made a break in the bathroom, Siegel Geneveze, Anastasia and the Jewish assassin Red Levin broke through the front door and filled Masseryyu lead, making it completely dead, and ended the war Kastelammareze.

Maranzano immediately called to meet with all the leading Mafiosi in the city (according to reports, more than 500 people) in a warehouse in the Bronx. At this meeting, Maranzano said: "Everything that happened in the past is over between us should not be more hate those who lost someone in the war, have to forgive and forget…"

Maranzano then went on to create five of seven & # 39; families, each of whom was the boss, and the underground. Under the two main people in each family & # 39; and would kapiregimy or captains who ran to the rest of the family & # 39; and: saledatos or soldiers. Five bosses were Joe Bonanno, Joe Profaci, Lucky Luciano, Tommy and Vincent Lyuchez Mangan. Albert Anastasia was the padstupnitsay Mangan and Carlo Gambino – captain in the family & # 39; and Mangan. Of course, Maranzano made himself "boss of all bosses» (Capo Di Tutti Capi), which did not sit well with the other young mafiosami.

Despite all the nice talk about "more hatred between us", in Maranzano had a secret plan to kill Luciano, Genevese and Costello – man Maranzano considered ambitious and threat management. Maranzano called malignant Irish killer Vincent "Mad Dog" Cole to eliminate perceived to compete with him. Cole Maranzano paid 25,000 dollars on the spot, and another 25 000 dollars – in the case of dirty. To set the trap, Maranzano invited Luciano Geneveze and Costello in his office at the Midtown Manhattan.

However, Luciano plot clocked through the informer close to Maranzano, which is believed to Tommy Lyucheze. Instead of being a & # 39; to appear at the office of Maranzano, Luciano sent four Jewish killers on the proposed meeting, which was led by Ed Levine, one person who stepped on Masseryi. Four people who were in the role of detective, buldoz their way past bodyguards Maranzano in the outer office. Then they blew in Maranzano's office, where he Nenette knife attack and was shot dead. Coming out of the building, four killer driven on Cole's "mad dog". They told him not to worry – that Maranzano dead, and the police is already under way. Cole looked at the face, whistling a happy tune, making the purchase of $ 25 000, without firing a single shot.

Soon Luciano called the chief of the four remaining seven mafia & # 39; ads, and told them that the title of "boss of bosses" was eliminated with Maransana. Then, Luciano created the National Commission on Crime, which included Jewish gangster Meyer Lansky, Bugsy Siegel and Dutch Schultz.

Gambino, who is firmly entrenched in something Captain & # 39; and Mangan, became the biggest money maker in the whole of the New York Mafia. A mafia money brings prestige.

In 1932, in their pockets, which burst the money Gambino married his first cousin, Catherine Castellano Carlo Gambino and Catherine eventually raised three sons and a daughter. (Marriage with the first cousin was common in Italy, but not in the US, today actually married to the first cousin in most, but not all states, illegal Editors note:.. My grandparents on his father's side were first cousins ​​who married in Sicily in the early 1900s.)

When the ban was lifted in 1933, Gambino was going to make money on a legal statement, but did so illegally. While the ban flourishing of illegal sales to the Mafia, Gambino had planned on those days when he knew that the ban will end. To achieve these goals, the Gambino gathered as much illegal pictures that could; in New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania and even Maryland. If the ban is over, and the cost of alcohol exploded through the roof in the Gambino was the largest illegal distribution system for alcoholic beverages on the East Coast of America. And because he was producing a drink and did not pay any state taxes, Gambino could spoil legal dystryb & # 39; yutarav, thereby making yourself and something & # 39; nd Mangan some luck all the mid to late 1930s.

The beginning of the Second World War gave the Gambino another opportunity to earn more illegal money, thanks to its wartime ration stamps racket. August 28, 1941, starting a war that against Germany and Japan, the United States government made at prices prices Management (OPA), whose task was to print and distribute the brand soldering American public. Without these brands people could not buy gasoline, tires, shoes, nylon, sugar, oil, coffee, meat, and processed foods. Gambino figured that the only way he can get his brand of rations to sell on the black market – is to steal them immediately.

Gambino sent their best men crackers and second floor in the storage management of price administration, and they & # 39 appeared to soldering stamps on hundreds of thousands of dollars. If some employees low APA understood that the brand is stealing rations, they decided to make a deal, stealing themselves brand soldering and selling them Gambino and his boys, of course, on the transaction. on the base price. Gambino figured why risk to steal the brand soldering, being able to get there. So he picked up the supply curve PSB officers and began to buy rations in their rations.

The beauty of this scheme is that Gambino was already established distribution network ready: its network of distributors of illegal booze. In October 1963, the informant Joe shaft Mafia testified before Arkansas Senator John L. MakKlelanam, engaged in investigating the Subcommittee on Government Operations, Gambino at once brought the brand, makes a profit of more than $ 1 million.

Being a smart businessman, Gambino knew he could not live high it without reporting to the government significant revenue. Thus, the Gambino invested the money earned during their illegal operations, in millions of dollars in legal business such as meat markets, pizza parlors, importers of olive cheese kartorskiya companies, garment factories, bakeries and restaurants.

By 1951 some & # 39; I Mangan, Gambino thanks to the incredible ability to make a profit, was one of the most prosperous in the Mafia. The problem is that Mangan was not used for its padstupnitsay Anastasia. Mangan envied Anastasia proximity with other bosses like Frank Costello and Lucky Luciano, who was in exile in Italy; Agreement on the pardon, which he received from the US government after serving 9 years in prison on trumped-up charges of prostitution. Several times Mangan physically attacked Anastasia, foolish step, since the younger and stronger Anastasia easily beat his boss in a fistfight.

It is rumored that Mangan thought to kill Anastasia, Anastasia blessed crime boss Franco Castello, decided to strike first. April 19, 1951 the precious remains of Phil Mangan's brother Vincent Mangano, was found in the marshes near the harbor Sheepshead. His shot five times in the head. When the police investigating the murder, tried to contact Vincent Mangan about his brother's death, they could not find a trace of him. Vincent Mangan body was never found.

Within a few days Anastasia sat with other bosses and explained that he had killed Mangan before Mangan could have killed him. With support for Costello, Anastasia came across a family boss & # 39; and a grill, and the name was changed to something & # 39; nd Anastasia. Anastasia did Skaliza Frank and Joe Adonis in his low Boss, and he gave his mop of Carlo Gambino and more men and more power in the organization.

However, the reign of Anastasia lasted at least seven years. Anastasia constantly flogged head malicious crime boss Vita Genovesa Island, who wanted to take all the rackets in New York, even if it meant killing other bosses one after another. Anastasia has received a severe blow when he was a teenager, Joe Adonis was deported back to Italy as an undesirable alien. Anastasia knew that his days are listed, if at the beginning of 1956 Frank Costello was killed in a head genevezskim textbook Vincent "Chin" giant. Costello survived the shooting, and the trial of the Giants, Castello, loyal mafioskamu code of "omerta", refused to name his attacker Giant.

However, it significantly reduced the Castello power mafia, and perseverance Genueze Costello was released as one of the fives bosses in Mafia Commission. This left without a close ally Anastasia and Anastasia put in a vulnerable position. Soon Anastasia, another padlesarka Frank Skaliza, was hit during the purchase of fruits and vegetables on Arthur Avenue in the Bronx.

Final shoe dropped when the October 25, 1957 Anastasia was shot while sitting in the barber's chair at the Park Sheridan Midtown Manhattan. As Anastasia was already dead, Geneveze urged to get out with other bosses Carlo Gambino and offered, which he put to the plot to kill Anastasia, take on something & # 39; nd Anastasia. The Commission agreed, and they renamed some & # 39; nd something & # 39; and Gambino.

Greedy geneveztsy called to meet with all crimes, the underground, the captains and respected people Mafia in America, to be held in the sleepy town of Apalachyn, NY, in the home of Joseph Barbara, Capo Something & # 39; I crimes Buffalo offender Stephen Magadino. The agenda Geneveze was a few items, but the main thing was that the Genevese declare himself "Capo Di Tutti Capi" or "Boss of All Bosses", that remained vacant after the death of Salvatore Maranzano.

November 17, 1957 Barbara made their way home dozens mafionav. The group included crime boss John cliffs from Cleveland, Sam Zhankana from Chicago, Frank Desimone of California, Santa Trafante from Florida Zherarda Katena and Frank Majuro from New Jersey, as well as Carlo Gambino, Joe Profaci, Tommy Lyucheze and Vita Zhenovese New NY.

But before the festivities began, State Sergeant Edgar Roswell, together with a dozen regular troops broke into the house. Roswell then said he was suspicious when he saw Joseph Barbara Bush made a reservation in the hotel for a dozen or so of those who overcame the buffer. Roswell said that then passed on Barbara residence and saw parked dozens of luxury cars that were parked in the estate of Barbara and around. Roswell said that is intended to support a lot of support, and when his troops arrived, they moved.

Later, rumors spread rumors that it was Meyer Lansky, not a big fan of Vito Geneveze, who consulted on the government troops mafiyuyuchuyu Convention mafia.

Whatever it was, when paratroopers stormed the house, Mafiosa as in the Chinese fire met, to scatter in all directions. Men in expensive suits jumped, though the open window, and if they could not get to their cars, they lifted him on foot through the forest, destroying the shoes with patent leather. Sam Zhankana safely escaped, fleeing through the woods, like Bona, throwing Carmine Galente. But the two men was a mess; their costumes destroyed thorny bushes. Some machines were leaving the property even before the checkpoint was set, but most – are not present. When the dust cleared, 58 mafia members were arrested and ordered to clean up pockets. A total of 300 thousand dollars in cash, 58 men were found to have made the public more suspicious police to a meeting.

The meeting was distinctive people who decided not to attend. Besides Lansky, Frank Costello absent, Carlo Marcello of New Orleans and a member Lanskaya Joseph "Doc" Stracher.

Of the 58 people arrested, 27 were before the & # 39; shows the charges of obstruction of justice, 20 of whom were convicted for refusing to answer the questions of the goal. One of the convicts – Gambino cousin Paul Castellano, who eventually ended the year.

Stopped meeting, more than anything else, led to the fall Vita Genavese. He not only did not get exalted title of "boss of bosses", but has become a pariah in the Mafia; It derided as stupid and greedy to simultaneously cause so many important people in the same place for their own purposes.

The next day the front pages launched after raids across the country newspaper about the incident. People Mafia could no longer argue that the Mafia does not exist. Police and FBI Director J.. Эдгар Гувер, які гадамі адмаўляў існаванне мафіі, учынілі шалёную атаку, аказваючы надзвычайны ціск на дзейнасць мафіі.

Хоць спачатку Карла Гамбіно, здавалася, стаў ахвярай абставінаў, хітры ветэран мафіі задумаў павярнуць здарэнне на сваю карысць. На самай справе былі здагадкі, што Гамбіно ведаў пра рэйд загадзя, і пайшоў туды мэтанакіравана, каб ніхто не падазраваў яго ў здрадзе; што мела б сэнс у святле далейшых падзей.

Паколькі Генэвэс усё яшчэ тушыцца ад страты твару, Гамбіна ўступіў у змову з Франкам Кастэла, Мэерам Ланскім і Лакі Лучана (яшчэ ў выгнанні ў Італіі, але змог свабодна перабрацца на Кубу, каб сустрэцца са сваімі прыяцелямі), каб прымусіць Генэвезе ўзняцца на шыю. шматмільённая міжнародная здзелка з наркотыкамі. Нават думка, што мафія забараняла наркаманію, сквапны генэвезцы не маглі супрацьстаяць жаданню зрабіць тону цеста.

Калі прыйшоў час, Гамбіно даў рады Бюро па наркотыках наконт здзелкі з наркотыкамі, што прывяло да арышту Генэвезэ. У ходзе судовага разбору Genovese Гамбіно заплаціў ілжывым сведкам па імені Нельсан Кантэлапс, які настойваў на меркаванні сведкі аб тым, што Genovese не толькі ўдзельнічаў у гэтай канкрэтнай здзелкі з наркотыкамі, але на самай справе ўдзельнічаў у дзясятках здзелак з наркотыкамі на працягу многіх гадоў. У выніку Генэвэз быў прысуджаны да 15 гадоў пазбаўлення волі. Да таго, як ён памёр у турме 14 лютага 1969 г., Генэвез адбыў крыху больш за дзесяць гадоў свайго пакарання.

З загінулай Анастасіяй, Генэвезэ ў турме, Лучана ў выгнанні, Фрэнкам Кастэла ў асноўным з пятлі мафіі, Джо Прафачы старэе і слабее, а Джо Бонана, які мае адносна невялікую сям'ю злачынстваў, Карла Гамбіно, несумненна, стаў самым магутным босам мафіі ў Амерыцы. Яго экіпаж з больш чым 500 людзей, якія выйшлі на вуліцы, уключаў свайго падлеску Джо Біанда, ягонага кансільера Джозэфа Рыкабона і капоса Арманда "Томі" Равы, Аніэла "Містэра Ніла" Дэлакроса, Пола Кастэлана, Карміна "Доктара" Ламбардоцці, Іосіфа " Джо Пані "Armone, і Carmine" Колы вагона "Фаціка.

Гамбіно пашырыў свае прадпрыемствы па ўсёй тэрыторыі ЗША. Акрамя Нью-Ёрка, Гамбіна праводзіў пальцы ў чыгуне ў Чыкага, Лос-Анджэлесе, Маямі, Бостане, Сан-Францыска і Лас-Вегасе. Гамбіно таксама кіраваў магутным Міжнародным саюзам longshoremen, які кантраляваў усе докі ў Нью-Ёрку, галоўным порце для імпарту ў Амерыку.

Пасля таго, як Джо Валачы стаў першым вядомым мафіёзным інфарматарам, Гамбіно ўзмацніў правіла, якое забараняла прадаваць наркотыкі ў сваім экіпажы. Рацыянальнасцю Гамбіно было тое, што штрафныя санкцыі за продаж наркотыкаў былі такімі жорсткімі, што пры арышце мужчыны маглі стаць пацукамі, а не займацца ў турме, як гэта рабілі ранейшыя мужчыны з мафіі. Палітыка сям'і Гамбіно была "Deal and Die", і ён выконваў гэтае правіла без выключэння.

Карла Гамбіно, едучы на ​​вяршыню мафійнай кучы, стаў папулярнай фігурай у наваколлі Нью-Ёрка па вуліцах Маленькай Італіі. Пакуль іншыя начальнікі забарыкадаваліся ў сваіх асабняках, узброеным ахоўнікам, ахоўнай сігналізацыяй і электрыфікаванымі платамі, Гамбіна беспакарана хадзіў па вуліцах, спыняючы размаўляць са старымі сябрамі, у той час як купляць гародніну і садавіну ў вулічных прадаўцоў. Гамбіно адправіўся ў Ферара на Гранд-стрыт, паміж шаўкоўніцай і мотам, дзеля выпечкі. Потым ён пайшоў па блоку, каб дастаць італьянскае мяса, сыры і італьянскія дэлікатэсы з Алевы, на рагу шаўкоўніцы і гранд.

З сакавіка 1970 года ў Гамбіно пачаліся праблемы з законам. Пакуль ён ішоў па вуліцы Бруклін, Гамбіна быў акружаны паліцыяй Нью-Ёрка і членамі ФБР. Яны арыштавалі Гамбіна і абвінавацілі яго ў тым, каб выкрадаць схему выкрадання 30 мільёнаў долараў наяўнымі ў бронетэхнічнай кампаніі, размешчанай у Бронксе. У рэшце рэшт Гамбіно быў прад'яўлены абвінавачаннем, але справа была адменена з-за адсутнасці складу злачынства.

Гэта прымусіла федэралаў паспрабаваць іншую тактыку, каб вывесці Гамбіна з вуліц. У 1966 годзе ўрад выдаў загад аб дэпартацыі на Гамбіно, але чамусьці так і не было выканана. У пачатку 1971 года, пасля таго, як жонка Гамбіно Кацярына памерла ад раку, федэраты сапраўды паспрабавалі выканаць гэты загад, але, пачуўшы пра сваю хуткую небяспеку, хітрая Гамбіно падрабіла сур'ёзны сардэчны прыступ. Федэрацыі раздражнёныя былі ў Гамбіна, таму Служба аховы здароўя ЗША павінна даць Гамбіно поўнай фізічнай сіле. Федэрацыі былі раздражнёныя, калі было ўстаноўлена, што ў Гамбіна сапраўды цяжкае сэрца. Гэта было пацверджана ў 1972 годзе, калі Гамбіна быў накіраваны са свайго дома ў 2230 годзе ў Ocean Parkway, у Брукліне, у бальніцу Каламбуса на Манхэтэне з маштабным сардэчным прыступам. Чаму бальніца ў Брукліне не падыходзіць Гамбіно, ніколі не было выяўлена.

Падчас аздараўлення дома, Гамбіно парушыў адзін з законаў, які сам дэкрэт распавёў – "Змагайся з наркотыкамі і памірай". Выканаўца абавязкаў генуэзскага боса Томаса "Томі Раян" Эболі звярнуўся да Гамбіна з прапановай "не прапусціць" брокера на шматмільённую здзелку з наркотыкамі з Луісам Грацыё, лічаным Федэрацыяй самым буйным дылерам наркотыкаў у Амерыцы. Праблема заключалася ў тым, што Эболі, былы менеджэр бокса і сумна дрэнны азартны гулец, не меў $ 4 млн, неабходных для працягу аперацыі. Гамбіно накіраваў Эболі 4 мільёны долараў, але ён усё страціў, калі федэраты арыштавалі Грамадла і канфіскавалі наркотыкі і грошы. Калі Гамбіно наблізіўся да Эболі з нагоды сваіх недахопаў у 4 мільёны долараў, Эболі перацягнуў кішэні навыварат, паказваючы, што ён быў разбіты.

Гэта не спадабалася Гамбіна занадта. У выніку 16 ліпеня 1972 г., прыблізна ў 13:00, Эболі пяць разоў быў застрэлены, калі ён пакідаў кватэру сваёй дзяўчыны ў Краўн-Гайтс, Бруклін. Эболі памёр на месцы, а Гамбіно меў дастатковы ўплыў у камісіі мафіі, каб загадаць, каб яго блізкі таварыш, капітан генуэзцы Франк "Фунзі" Тыеры, стаў новым босам сям'і Генуэзэ. І так было зроблена.

У Гамбіно была іншая няўдача, калі ў пачатку 1973 года яго 29-гадовы пляменнік Эмануэль "Мэнні" Гамбіна быў выкрадзены за выкуп. Гэтая ж банда раней выкрала капітана сям'і Гамбіно злачынства, Франка "Фрэнкі Вуп" Манцо за 100 000 долараў. Пасля таго, як гэтая сума была выплачана за бяспечнае вяртанне Манзо, банда стала больш маштабнай з нагоды выкрадання Мані Гамбіно – на гэты раз просячы 200 000 долараў. Гамбіно паспрабаваў размясціцца, прапанаваўшы ім толькі 50 000 долараў. Неўзабаве цела Мані Гамбіно было знойдзена ў сядзячым становішчы на ​​сметніку Нью-Джэрсі, побач з ваенна-марскім складам боепрыпасаў. 1 чэрвеня 1973 года выроджаны азартны гулец Роберт Сэнтэр прызнаў сябе вінаватым у забойстве і быў прысуджаны да пятнаццаці гадоў пазбаўлення волі. Мабыць, Сэнтэр запазычыўся перад Гамбіно, і было лягчэй забіць Гамбіна, потым выплаціць доўг.

Пасля смерці пляменніка пагоршылася агонія смерці ягонай жонкі, Гамбіно стаў пустэльнікам у сваім доме на акіяне Паркуэй. Ён акружыў сябе членамі сям'і, у першую чаргу яго стрыечным братам Полам Кастэлана. Да 1975 г. было зразумела, што сэрца Гамбіно не дазволіць яму жыць значна даўжэй. Таму ён пачаў планаваць сваё пераемнасць на пасадзе кіраўніка злачыннай сям'і Гамбіно. Жадаючы захаваць уладу ў крыві ўласнай сям'і, Гамбіно намасціў стрыечнага брата Пола Кастэлана, каб перамагчы яго.

Гэта не надта ўдалося з астатнімі Гамбіносамі, якія чакалі, што даўні Мафіёса Аніэла Дэлакрочэ стане натуральным пераемнікам Гамбіно. Каб супакоіць Dellacroce, Гамбіно падарыў яму ўсе ракеткі Манхэтэна, падкантрольныя сям'і Гамбіно. І сапраўды гэта быў вялікі падарунак.

15 кастрычніка 1976 г. Карла Гамбіно заняў апошні ўдых, калі нарэшце ахапіла яго сэрца. Пахаванне Гамбіна было адным з самых складаных, што адбываліся ў мястэчку Бруклін. Больш за 100 машын прынялі ўдзел у жалобнай працэсіі, якая завяршылася на могілках Сэнт-Джона ў Квінс, Нью-Ёрк; на тых жа могілках быў пахаваны яго пажыццёвы сябар Чарльз "Лакі" Лучана.

У фільме 1985 года "Гонар Прызі" рэжысёра Джона Хастона і галоўнай ролі Джэка Нікалсана акцёр Уільям Хікі сыграў Дон Коррада Прыцы, персанажа, заснаванага на доне Карла Гамбіна.

Tourist Guide to Eastern White Mountains of New Hampshire

1. Appalachian:

Stretching nearly 2,000 miles from Newfoundland in Canada to Alabama, in the US, Apalachavskih mountains – or east side of the Rocky Mountains in the west, creates a natural bar & # 39; er between the coastal plain of North America and its interior lowlands. Padpadyalyayuchysya three northern, central and southern regions of physiographical, they cover many ranges.

Appalachian which consist of metamorphic rocks formed catastrophic eruptions, intense heat and pressure of crushing during the Precambrian period between 1.1 billion and 540 million years ago, some old mountains formed planet. During the upheavals of the earth's crust at the end of the Paleozoic era (about 250 million years ago) they were formed when the internal destruction of unimaginable proportions exerted pressure in the underground rock, then curved, folding, split and created krekakt before counteract. by raising, sometimes with parallel ridges. Re-formation and the chisel with water, ice and weather & # 39; it for thousands of years has created valleys and ravines at the time when the majority of plants and animal species still existed.

If the Earth's forces had subsided, they left the highest peak, 6684 feet, in today's North Carolina as Mount Mitchell.

2. The White Mountains:

New Hampshire is hardly neglected when it came to the highest temperatures. Indeed, his own site Appalatskaga chain, White Mountains, jabbing the sky 48 peaks, which were considered "four thousand feet," a few, and the crown of his kingdom with a minimum height of 5000 feet, 6288-foot Mount Washington, the highest peak in the whole north-east .

Glaciers formed a deep mountain passes, which the early settlers called the "notches" because they resemble the shape that they have done in the tree with the ax, while the circles created head of gullies, such as Mount Washington and Mount Tukerman Adam & # 39; s King ravines.

The man also had a hand, and sometimes fatally – in the formation of the Appalachian Mountains in New Hampshire. Deprived of their drevaabarotu due to logging problems that have purchased most of the land, and then reduce it to flake sawmill from 1832, before sending the railways, they remained naked until about a week the law was not signed and permitted in 1914 the acquisition of the original 7 000 hectares.

Following the purchase in conjunction with the prohibition of logging in designated areas of the desert led to the creation of 800 thousand acres of National Forest White Mountain, which today sounds the slogan "Land of the numerous benefits."

Excellent in the state with the & # 39 is the number of his presidency, the peaks of which, as their name implies, named in honor of the presidents and other famous Americans.

Its rich wildlife from deer to live mouse, black bears, cubs, gray fox, coyote, beaver, porcupine, raccoon and 184 species of birds, including peregrine falcon.

Although its protected status limits its use, this restriction does not apply to the satisfaction of which opportunities are many and depend on the season.

Heavy snowfall is converted into pristine landscape postcards and racing tips for the winter, for example, zamanyayuchy sightseers, hikers, athletes and enthusiasts, as mountains give their side and hold meetings at world-class resorts, which facilitate a number of activities, including alpine and cross-country skiing, hiking in the snow, walking on snow shoes in the snow, ice skating, sledding, sleigh rides, ice fishing, sled dogs and even climbing the waterfall.

Autumn flowers Autumn region becomes infinite canvas paintings of Impressionism, becoming a magnet for photographers, naturalists and leaves. the color may differ depending on time, height and type of wood. For example, red maples atop a low elevation in the middle of September, and beech, maple and birch sugar below this level in a month less than 2,000 feet. This peak occurs earlier in the beginning of October, between 2000 and 3500 feet, and yellow birch, maple and mountain ash glow with the intensity of the color in the middle of September from 3500 to 5500 feet.

However, the field peaks reach their highest heights during the summer tourist season, when he was about two dozen attractions provide natural scenery, the connection to the train past, theme parks, family oriented & # 39; w, and active outdoor activities.

3. Orientation:

White Mountains of New Hampshire, located in the northern part of the state, are readily available: Route 16, Interstate 93 and Route 3 provides travel on north-south as well as the routes 2, 302 and 112, which cut the area in the east-west direction.

4. White Mountain Attractions:

A. On route 2:

The village of Santa Santa, located in Jefferson, New Hampshire, and is open from May to December – is the Christmas Park, which allows children to attend a bearded man in a red suit in July, feed reindeer and enjoy 19 different trips and activities, including antique cars, Flume Flying flying sleigh, train Jingle Bells Express, roller coasters and a water park. Live 3-D show is presented in the Arctic theater and Burgermeister Food Court offers a variety of items for lunch, including the ability to decorate cakes.

One-, two-day and seasonal passes allow unlimited use of park attractions, shows and attractions.

Six Gun City and Fort Splash – another theme park that focuses on the family & # 39; nd in Jefferson accessed by Route 2, but with the West. Open from May to September, it gives opportunity to its visitors to "ride slaydavats and play all day" on the sights, which include baskets, laser tag, water slides, bumpers, attractions saws, mechanical coaches, boats and boat Gold Rush runaway train.

Children can earn a badge by the deputy sheriff or go to the other side of the law and place their images adorn the posters need.

Transport Museum exhibits more than one hundred antique wagons and sleds, including the oldest Concord car.

Children can pull the pair (with soda) in the cabin Six Gun or dine in Grabby & Grub house and clothes and gifts related to cowboy, can be purchased at the trading post and general store.

Camping Fort Jefferson, which has its own swimming pool, offers 100 sites – from tents to full connections.

B. On route 302:

Defying humanity to win its top, a height of 2888 feet, and thought Darby Field, the first to have successfully done so, when he climbed to the top in 1652, with the help of two Indian guides, Mount Washington has never ceased to tempt people to duplicate his success. However, the modern tourist can make it much easier, faster and more convenient with the railway road Mount Washington.

When two hundred years Sylvester Marsh, a native of New Hampshire and Chicago myasakamerny entrepreneur moved on the trail Fields and captured the mountain life threatening snowstorm, he promised to develop a method that would have evaded the dangers of climbing and would make it available to all.

Securing the statute for climbing railway, the concept of which was initially greeted with laughter by the legislation of New Hampshire and was accompanied by a well-known today by saying that "it can also build a railway to the moon," he invented a technology that includes a small, directional, from under the engine, which peravyazavsya the jumper is set between a tiny track, and allow the engine to get up to the slopes as steep 37.41 percent.

Successfully reached its high purpose and elevation in 1869, it works since then. National Historic Site – the second steepest railway system of the world and the oldest so far.

Available on the basic road six miles next to the station FAB & # 39; yang with Route 302, Railway Road Mount Washington COG offers a three-hour circular trip from Marshfield own station to the top of the steam and bio-diesel locomotives. and October, as well as a simultaneous trip halfway into November and December. All trains consist of natsiskalnaga engine and a passenger car.

In addition to presenting a ticket; self-service restaurant, Catalani on the screw; and gift shop, the station itself offers a glimpse into the technology of early railway railroad through the teeth of museum and external displays, which include the first steam locomotive, which went up the mountain.

View from the top of a rocky landscape covers the top of the brewed top presidential range, and riders can visit the building of the Sherman Adams Summit; Mount Washington Observatory; House tips National Historic Site; and management of scenic summit, where the highest wind speed was recorded in the world – 231 miles / h.

Near the railway road Mount Washington Screw on the road 302 in Bretton Woods – another famous landmark – Mount Washington Resort.

This white facade, red-roof mega-mansion, one of the original grand hotels, built in a forest green and always in the shadow of the mountain itself, was built in 1900 and 1902 respectively Stykni Joseph, a native of New Hampshire, who collected wealth in coal and to Pennsylvania in the Spanish Revival style.

Built 250 of the Italian masters, who used a thorough details to its wooden and working ant and the occasional steel frames and innovative heating systems, power plants, sanitary ware and private telephone systems, and there is still a post office, turning the forest into a luxury in the form of the most magnificent hotels .

The staff of 350 people, it has opened its doors July 28, 1902, providing guests with a rich northeast, celebrities and dignitaries, including Thomas Edison, Babe Ruth, Joan Crawford, Princess Margaret and three US presidents, who have access to the zone. Up to 50 daily trains serving three local stations.

In 1944 it hosted the International Monetary Conference Brett Woods, during which delegates from 44 countries created the World Bank and the International Monetary Fund, setting the gold standard in the amount of $ 35.00 and assigning US dollar basis for international exchange.

In 1978 the hotel was included in the National Register of Historic Places, and nine years later the Ministry of Internal Affairs of the National Historic Landmark was recognized.

Its age-old elegance reminiscent of the porch at 900 feet and lobby "Great Hall", which is characterized by high ceilings and fireplaces rocky.

Other great era of sound in the form of tea in southern princess room, five-star meals in the dining room, the lighter fare in Stykni restaurant, cocktail bar in Rosebrook, veranda or in rock caves, the operator Autonomous elevator and crew for carriage on the territory of the surrounding peaks white mountains and Crawford-Notch.

Spa area of ​​25,000 square feet, which has 13 treatment rooms and two golf courses, stretched convenience, the latter of which includes nine holes, opened in 1895, Mount Pleasant, and an 18-hole course in the mountains of Washington, who was restored to the design of Donald Ross in 1915.

Bretton Arms Inn, owned by Omni, – it's breakfast.

Route 302 from the restaurant on Fabiyanskim station is a ski resort Bretton Woods on Mount Roosbroeck. It has 433 acres for skiing and snow landings, 101 alpine trails, 100 kilometers of Nordic trails, four terrain park, night skiing, as well as a tour of the canopy with ten rulers, two celestial bridges and three rappelnymi stations.

In addition to the skiing, winter activities include sleigh dogs, sledding, skiing, snow, ice skating shoes on snow and rock climbing, and summer activities include hiking, cycling, swimming, hunting, fishing, tennis, also riding on roads and transport.

Meals include Lucy Krovfardski food court and restaurant "Shilsayd" in the base lodge and restaurant Top O & # 39; at the summit.

Further east on Route 302 is a state park Crawford Notch.

Open in 1771, when Timothy Nash at Lancaster hunter, found a gap, track elk for cherry hill, Governor John Wentworth promised him land if he would like to ride a horse, and to build a road through it, as eventually he achieved despite the significant topographic barriers.

The area itself was named after the family & # 39; and Crawford, its first settlers. Setting a tavern for travelers and paving the first trail to Mount Washington, they spent climbing expeditions.

Avoiding this excessive deforestation, New Hampshire has acquired most of the local land in 1913, designating it a state park. Its area of ​​5775 acres now covered tops of mountains bordering the valley of the Soco River.

In addition to a picnic, fishing and hiking, it offers two short walks, light hiking trails: the pond a half-mile-trail leading to the pond mind while adnabalnaya Sam Willey road goes across the river Saco. Extension and separate paths lead to falls and Ripley Aretusa.

Farther to the east, but still on route 302, lies the mountain resort Attytash, whose peak rises to 2350 feet. In addition to the standard offerings of winter sports, it opened its doors for the summer holidays in 1976, with more than one mile mile accessible slide-slide, taken away from Germany, which has sliding slopes and half-turns.

Progressively added attractions now include rail, machine for two people plying the 2280-foot North Easter mountain coaster with a 360-degree loops; rock climbing; trampoline; water slides; mountain biking; horseback riding; and 1,700-foot paintings under the & # 39; lift.

Daytime, day and single tickets for adults and children allow visitors to optimize their experience.

In peradgor & # 39; 1050-foot holes border bearish peak is located at the Attitash Grand Summit Crawford and restaurants, while the mountain village of otitis is located across the road 302.

C. On the route 16:

While rail screw provides access from the west side to the top of the mountain road Mount Washington offers an alternative to the independent movement from the eastern side.

Tracing its origins to the original purpose of the road on Mount Washington, which became the country's first human tourist attraction when it opened Aug. 8, 1861, it allows motorists to "take the high road" as is advertised, in particular. It is a route 16 in Pinkham Notch.

Lodge Great Glen, located at its base and offers a restaurant as well as an adjacent museum Douglas A. Philbrook in the red barn, the last of the barns for horses and hay, which were neodymium & # 39; emnay part of the procedure statement Carriage roads. collection of restored cars, wagons, carts and cars that once were on the supreme path.

The basic fee for entrance to the highway road includes the car, its driver, audio cassette and landscape tour on CD-ROM, and the famous "This car climbed Mount Washington 'Bumper Stickers and vehicles rise from 1543 to 6288 feet, with familiarization factor increasing the height between 594 and 880 feet per mile, passing the road 7.6 miles. They have access to the same species at summit and historic buildings as their passenger Stretches.

A short distance from the highway route 16 is Mount Wildcat, the most famous sister Atytasha. Its 49 trails and glades, achieved the most powerful four-seater under & # 39; omnitsay in New England include 2.75 mile Polcat Trail for beginners, 2112 feet vertically dropping Lynx Trail for intermediates and experts for the Wildcat Trail.

Summer activities include Skyride Wildcat Mountain Express. During the 15-minute journey in silence upward on the 4,662-meter summit of the mountain the Wildcat, four gondolas move among and, ultimately, higher green tsunami waves covering the White Mountains and the ravine Takkermana, lion's head, Raymond Cataract, Mount Washington and Huntington Yar among distant but still visible dusty sugar spots and peak points, which adheres to fly, even in summer.

When they approach the top, they open the door and emit a smell of pine looks as if the rider had been thrown into the local nursery for the annual Christmas. fun tree. Air thin and clear, at ten degrees cooler than at the bottom.

"You are standing on Appalatskay trail" – immediately sign advises, "designed by Congress as a national scenic trail in 1968". Stretching more than 2140 miles from Mount Sprynger in the state of Georgia to Kataddina, Maine, it crosses 14 states, eight national forests, six areas of the national park and many state-owned land.

A short walk to the other end of the top open view of the eastern slope of the National Forest White Mountain and the north Kirsharzh, South bicapital and the Black Mountains. In the east, in the foreground, is the Valley River Wild, while a number of smaller, rounded hills formed during the last glacial period, can be seen outside of this area, on the state line of New Hampshire and Maine. Clear days allow to see the Atlantic Ocean, which is 90 miles.

Appalachian trail runs along the ridge of the president's, Mount Washington and a large bay of the desert to the west. Дыяпазон Mahoosuc і гарады Берлін і Горгам хаваюцца на поўначы, а на поўдні – Джэксан, Бартлет і Конвейс.

Wildcat Mountain – чатырохпавярховы Zip Rider, падвешаны да кабеля ў 70 футаў над зямлёй, спускаецца 2100 футаў над сцежкамі, верхавінамі дрэў і ракой Пібодзі з 12-працэнтнай ступенню і з хуткасцю да 45 міль / ч, вопыт ён характарызуе як "хуткасную езду на кабелі з раптоўнай, рэзкай пасадкай".

Пешыя прагулкі па шляху дзікай коткі адкрываюцца відэльцы на вадаспад Томпсан, а рыбалка – на рацэ Пібодзі.

Пакет ўключае ў сябе такія функцыі, як паездка на гандоле, абед у кафэ Гора, дыскавы гольф і размяшчэнне ў гатэлі Attitash Grand Summit.

Паўднёвей па маршруце 16 знаходзіцца Горны клуб Апалачаў. Заснаваны ў Бостане Эдвардам Пікерынгам і яшчэ 33мі энтузіястамі на свежым паветры для пазней вызначанай мэты "садзейнічання (абароне) абароны, задавальнення і разумення гор, лясоў, вод і сцяжын Апалачаўскага рэгіёну", ён падрабіў свой першы пешаходная сцежка ў Тукерман-Роўне ў 1879 годзе і ў цяперашні час падтрымлівае іх больш за 1500 міль, разам з хаткамі і домікамі, у межах 12-кіраўніцкай сістэмы, якая распасціраецца ад Мэна да Вашынгтона, Арганізацыя Калумбія, з 450 сезоннымі і штатнымі супрацоўнікамі і 16000 добраахвотнікаў, налічвае 100 000 членаў.

Яго кіраўнік у Нью-Гэмпшыры, у падставе горы Вашынгтон на ўсходняй частцы, быў цэнтрам для паходаў, скалалажанняў, лыжаў і снегоходкаў з 1920-х гадоў, і сёння падтрымлівае Джо Додж Лодж, кафетэрый, краму сувеніраў і восем Дамы для горных сцежак, а таксама прапануе лекцыі, майстар-класы і інструкцыі на адкрытым паветры.

Тут жа размешчаны цэнтр для наведвальнікаў Pnkham Notch.

Зямля Story Land, яшчэ адзін сямейны тэматычны парк "Дзе ажываюць казкі", размешчаны яшчэ на поўдзень, у чвэрці мілі ад развязкі шляхоў 16 і 302 у Глен.

Дзецям падаюць шведскі стол з атракцыёнамі і забавамі, уключаючы антыкварныя вагоны, павозкі з гарбузамі Папялушкі, паркавыя цягнікі, якія жуюць жуйку, д-р Гейзер і выдатны сплаў на плытах, палярныя амерыканскія катэдры, бамбукавыя жолабы, вірусны кіт Паездка, краб-поўзанне, акіяны весялосці, чарапахавы паварот, пырскі бітвы і Замак Папялушкі.

Яго забавы, як паказваюць яго маляўнічыя назвы, аднолькава арыентаваны на моладзь: Duke & Dance Party, Урачыстасць па прывілеях, The Story-Bops, Fiasco Fairy Tale, Royal Hanneford Circus і Show of Farm Follies.

Напоі, закускі і стравы можна набыць на некалькіх пляцоўках, уключаючы кірмаш харчавання, кухню Pixie і стойку Сонечнага дня.

Горад Паўночны Конуэй, размешчаны на поўдзень ад маршруту 16 (таксама вядомы як Белая гара з шашы), з'яўляецца самай значнай турыстычнай базай раёна.

Уладальнік губернатара палкоўніка Бэнінга Вентворта ў 1765 г. ён абавязаны сваім уздымам геаграфіі, тапаграфіі і транспарту. У гонар Генры Сеймура Конуэя, 20-гадовага парлямэнтара, абранага афіцыйным парлямэнтам, ён прыжыўся літаральна ў выглядзе прарастаючых фермаў, як і ў многіх іншых вёсках Новай Англіі, пасьля амэрыканскай рэвалюцыі.

Звязаны з навакольным светам у 1872 годзе, калі чыгуначныя шляхі Портсмут, Вялікі вадаспад і Конвей праклалі свае шляхі, у ім адбывалася ўсё большая колькасць турыстаў, якіх прыцягвалі мясцовыя зімовыя віды спорту і горныя пейзажы, апошні часта захоплены ў Белым Карціны горнага мастацтва.

Такім чынам, атаясамліваючы сябе з дзейнасцю, якую спрыяла яго тапаграфія, ён стаў вядомы як "радзіма катання на лыжах" у 1832 годзе, а чыгунка выехала ў горад па выхадных да 5000 пасажыраў у горад з дапамогай "Снежных цягнікоў".

Сёння, нягледзячы на ​​кампактныя памеры, ён прапануе шэраг паслуг і выгод, як правіла, звязаных з горадам, у тры разы большага памеру. Пражыванне, напрыклад, вар'іруецца ад гістарычных інтэрнатаў (напрыклад, сядзіба Стоунхерст і Inn, Inn 1785 і Усходні схіл) да знаёмых сетак (напрыклад, Holiday Inn Express і Marriott & # 39; s Residence Inn). У рэстаранах працуе гамбіт ад фаст-фуда да баварскага шакаладнага хаўса, сапраўднай італьянскай закускі і сталовых у саміх гістарычных карчмах. Крамы гэтак жа шматгранныя – ад кухонных крам сувеніраў да кнігарняў, пасяленцаў & # 39; Village Outlet Village і гандлёвы цэнтр North Conway. Іншыя прапановы горада ўключаюць мастацкія галерэі, грамадскі цэнтр з жывымі выступленнямі, цэнтр выяўлення надвор'я, узорны музей чыгункі і гістарычную чыгуначную станцыю.

Менавіта з гэтай станцыі наведвальнікі могуць адступіць назад і праехаць у багатае чыгуначнае мінулае раёна.

Маляўнічы чыгуначны вакзал North Conway, калісьці транспартная сувязь з астатняй часткай краіны і ў цяперашні час архітэктурны ў мінулае, быў гарадскім ядром і цэнтрам гараджан & # 39; жыццё, да якога звяртаюцца мясцовыя падводы і фуры. Пабудаваны ў 1874 годзе для Портсмута, Вялікага вадаспаду і Конуэя і распрацаваны Натаніэлам Дж. Брэдлі, архітэктарам з Бостана, які быў знакаміты – ён быў прызначаны для абслугоўвання расце курортнай супольнасці.

Унушальнае дэпо з падвойным уздымам, веліч якога ўяўляе сабой тыповыя для гэтага часу станцыі, займае 136-гадовую даху, усталяваную на гарышчы, латуневы і жалезны гадзіннік Э. Говарда, які, здаецца, не ведае пра падвеску трэка і працягвае падмятаць. яго рукі на 360 градусаў, 365 дзён у годзе.

Інтэр'ер, з абодвух бакоў скручаны вітрамі, драўлянымі, вежамі, якія пад'язджаюць да вежы, адлюстроўваюць яе залаты век з арыгінальным білетам і тэлеграфным аддзяленнем, у камплекце з старадаўнімі інструментамі, зонай чакання пасажыраў / музеем (калісьці чакальня для жанчын ), латуневы сувенірны магазин "Былы мужчын" і пакой для захоўвання багажу). Ён служыць сведчаннем мінулага чыгункі горада і з'яўляецца адным з нешматлікіх захаваных у краіне арыгінальных і поўных складоў.

85-футовы паваротны станок, які працуе на сціснутым паветры, які дазваляе паварочваць лакаматыў альбо для выраўноўвання гусеніц, альбо для зваротнай арыентацыі на 180 градусаў, і дазваляе атрымаць доступ да чатырохсхільных круглых дамоў, чые ямкі для дарожак даюць магчымасць абслугоўвання, рамонту і абслугоўвання. Яе выязныя работнікі часта сядзяць у багажнай машыне побач.

Нараўне з дэпо і круглым домам з яго паваротным сталом, Дом грузавых перавозак, пабудаваны ў 1870-х гадах як пункт апрацоўкі грузавых дакументаў, якія праводзяцца інспектарамі, унесены ў Нацыянальны рэестр гістарычных месцаў. У цяперашні час размешчаны Мадэльны чыгуначны клуб North Conway.

Парк чыгуначнай чыгункі Conway складаецца з 13 паравых і дызельных электравозаў, больш за 40 аўтамабіляў і вагонаў, сем кабусаў прыватнай уласнасці і тры сняданкі з прыватнай уласнасцю.

Ён прапануе некалькі дзённых турыстычных цягнікоў у летні сезон. Напрыклад, "Вагоны з цягнікоў", напрыклад, альбо працуюць аднагадзінныя, 11-кіламетровыя паездкі ў Конвей, альбо адначасовыя, 45-хвілінныя, 21-мілі вярнуць у Бартлет, у той час як "цягнікі з насечкамі" пранікаюць у Кроуфорд-Notch і робяць 50-мільная пяцігадзінная экскурсія ў Кроўфард-дэпо і на станцыю Фаб'ян. Гэтыя паслугі выкарыстоўваюць электрычную рухаючую магутнасць альбо на пару, альбо на дызель, і пасажыры могуць забраніраваць нумары трэнераў, першакласных класаў або нумары прэміум-класа на трох стравы.

Горад Кранмор, які належыць гораду, які служыць аматарам зімовых відаў спорту, мае горналыжны курорт на самым заднім двары, усяго ў мілі ад артэрыі 16-га маршрута, якая рэжа яго.

Ён даўно асацыяваўся з унікальнай сістэмай узыходзячых гор, у яе быў парк з 192 металічных, гумовых колаў і сцягнутых на кабелі скімобілаў, якія падняліся на гару Кранмор па драўлянай эстакаце з двух секцый. Распрацаваны Джорджам Мортанам з Бартлета, Нью-Гэмпшыр, ён перавозіў неба і экскурсанты, і быў самай старой дзеючай сістэмай пад'ёмнікаў у Паўночнай Амерыцы, калі спыніў сваю дзейнасць у 1989 годзе пасля 51 года бесперапыннай службы.

Сёння на гары Кранмор ёсць дзесяць пад'ёмнікаў; 13 пачатковых, 25 прамежкавых і 16 экспертных; і 1200-футавыя вертыкальныя кроплі. Славутасці, якія не катаюцца на лыжах, ўключаюць у сябе крытую зону прыгод у сваёй базавай хаце; гіганцкія арэлі; 2700 футаў горных кабатажных судна; ландшафтныя паркі; курс вяроўкі; батут з чатырма станцыямі банджы; экскурсіі па горных Сегвей; нізкая, 700-футная даўжыня, двайны чалавек; і маляўнічая атмасфера.

All of the restaurants in Washington DC

Welcome to the Capitol of the nation! So, in this city of people are talking about politics, like the rest of talk about our sports teams. But they are not so bad – fake DC workers know exactly how to relax these connections. DC – a city that loves its Happy Hour – a time when you can catch up with friends or meet new ones.

We have seen how you smuggled disguised clothes in their booth, so you were ready for a 5-day call. Go ahead, leave the car in the garage office – you can always give him a ride home or back to work the next morning.

Like most cities, Washington, DC – a collection of smaller neighborhoods (of 14), each of which has its own flavor and charm. Architecture and attitudes vary from one block to another, creating a cultural patchwork that can be exciting for both locals and tourists. The city has a lot of energy from the whole policy of the Government and colleges in the city. From d & # 39; etnamskih places in Arlingtane, Washington, to the magic of brown stones Georgetown; From the urban feeling of the Connecticut Corridor near Woodley Park and Cleveland Park alternatively configured to Dupont Circle, each area in this city offers something unique.

One of our favorite things to do in DC – it's just to spend day and night at the mall. But remember that this is not the shopping type. It chatyrohmyasny or grassy park among all the cool national monuments and museums in the city center. Smithsonian Museum are free and let you explore art, history, space and more. You will also feel the national pride when pragulvaetsesya the mall. So, even if you hate science class, you'll still have fun whispering in Kapitoliyskay rotunda. While in the area, you should stop at the Museum of spies – with all its interesting hands real James Bond. Try to remember your screen name if you navigate through the maze of interactive espionage. And make a reservation, because, as you know, a bit of string away with.

He developed an appetite to see these sights of our nation's capitol? If you are filled with historical lessons and facts that you have forgotten to 6th grade, it's time to start working. That's when our travels We select for wine and dinner own party (political or not), while in DC:

Restaurants

CityZen (city center) – the hotel is located in the Eastern Mandarin (. 1330 Myurylend Avenue, 12), chef CityZen, Eric Siebold, recognized as one of the best new chefs in America. # 39; s & # 39; – and the restaurant is one of the & # 39; The hottest restaurants in the world. "This American-French restaurant (with Asian roots) has high ceilings and an exhibition kitchen. You can cook delicious dishes such as risotto with foie gras, chicken and dumplings, as well as praskuta with melon. With a wine cellar for 800 bottles, gourmet living room, dining room and cocktail martini or champagne – CityZen will allow you to enjoy a culinary journey.

Goals (Georgetown) – chic interior latino sushi, this place is just … hip. Another value in the crown of bar guru Mauricio frags-Rosenfeld (creator of Chi-Cha Lounge and Gua-Rapo). This derogation is mainly engaged in real estate in one of the last retail space in the Ritz-Carlton complex. The restaurant is famous for its tea teas, also presented a mixture of imported from Argentina, mixed with rum and fresh fruit, and even mahitosam soup willow-mate. Do not overlook maki-like rolls with graceful Latin ingredients, as well as traditional dishes such as Plato. Although there is no dance floor, Mate turns into a sexy night place when di Jane rotates. Mate can be found at 3101 K St NW (at 31st St. NW).

Ash (city center) – elegant and modern setting, which serves American tariffs, Zola is located among the restored classical architecture (located in Le Droit historic building), and offers an interesting eclectic wine. With a little pinch of espionage, patrons can look through a small spy hole in a nearby booth and look into another feast on smoked beer and fondue "Chaddar" fried yagnyanuyu Tabula or potato dumplings (which is pronounced in humans). Although the desserts Var & # 39; iruyutstsa from the simple to the sweet, clear more space for small items of peanut butter and chocolate bomb. The ash can be found under the radar of the International Spy Museum building on the street 800 F NW (at 8th).

IndeBleu (in downtown) – the motto of this place with a & # 39 is a "mix from the bottom, above, tempted in all things". Combining the intrigue of the Middle East, the elegance and class of Europe, the style and the energy capital of the world, IndeBleu offend you experience like no other. Offering a modern fusion of French / Indian fare in the main dining room, outdoor dishes and international rhythms in sensory room and a playful range of options for cocktails in the bar – what else do you need? Actually help cushion killed corners and sofas, floor to ceiling. This place is especially hard on Wednesday to Saturday, when the DJs twist international tunes. IndeBleu can be found at: ul. 707, at the north-west (in the 7th century.).

Filomena Ristorante (Georgetown) – one of the most famous authentic Italian restaurants in Washington, Filomena – this landmark, which has withstood the test of time for almost 25 years. Located in the heart of historic Georgetown (1063 Wisconsin Avenue in the south-east m), "pasta" have been known to knock tempting homemade pasta at the restaurant. Inside you will razdivats magnificent sites and favorable basement (no puns – restaurants are located below street level) 10 lunch buffets at $ 10. Filomena menu takes you to a tour of Italy with its culinary delights, as a mom with pasta with delicate dumplings filled with Italian cheeses and spinach dumplings. As for the sweet end of the tour, you will not miss by any strange cake, which is baked daily in our own bakery Filomena.

Mie N Yu (Georgetown) – This place is so exotic that you will be a fool to think that you're in a different country. Georgetown earlier space station, everything about this place – it's a feast for the senses. Almost every inch of the restaurant / bar area of ​​7000 square feet decorated with red and fuchsia, silk, brocade and velvet, antiques, relics and other colorful trinkets reminiscent of a Moroccan bazaar. The theme of "Silk Road" throughout Mie N Yu gives license to stay in the cabin of the Dragon, sip cocktails in the Red baroque dining room and order food and drink specials in the Turkish tent or in the Tibetan harem. wrought iron bird cage). Bar, inspired by the English language, complete with DJs, are hyping eclectic grooves from around the world about the & # 39; combines this unique corner of the dining room. In 3125 M. St. North (at Wisconsin Avenue).

Local 16 (U Street Street Corridor) – This place may seem a place for the trade unionists, but the name actually refers precisely to its location. Place for adults, designed only for dinner, the local 16 – above the neighbors and wonderful under the radar screen, "the crowd bridge and tunnel." Dining here is the food with the locals. Split between hip bar / lounge and dining area, local 16, serves wonderful dishes, like fried oysters on the boy and cabbage, as well as salmon with Top-Charcot. After 11 pm, you will notice that most of the snacks is, and locals gather. Get custom two bars indoors, open-air bar on the terrace, DJs and a mixed crowd of people who just want a pint. Local 16 is located at 1602 U St. NW (at New Hampshire Avenue NW).

Lima (city) – This restaurant-room on the street K offers a strong influence on Latin language on the menu – with a few curves balls merge to keep things interesting. From the dining room at the top and a lounge in the basement, LIMA is dark, cloudy and sexy. Just be careful not to give up in order to lose leg of the "invisible stairs!" Presenting the advantageous combination of cuisine, design and atmosphere, LIMA will have your palette, refined, sensual and savory dishes that include seviche, salad, steak and seafood. On the street 1401 K NW (in the 14th and up to St.).

Restaurant and wine bar Sonoma (Capitol Hill) – a new wine bar and restaurant in – of all places – Capital Hill. Although it is fashionable sound strange, if you open a trendy restaurant / bar, the success speaks for itself. Their menu has a south-European influence, and they offer the best cheeses and meats of the Italian, French and Spanish varieties – all of which are served in different combinations with olives and other sweets on the board for the processing of wood. Sohn also has perhaps the largest collection of wines per glass or in flight. Sonoma is located at 223 Pennsylvania Avenue, SE (2nd Street SE).

"Galileo" (foggy bottom) – famous for Italian cuisine and innovative, Galileo himself might have been proud of this place. Food critics have recognized one of the best Italian restaurants in the country and Roberto Donna – one of the nation's best chefs. The restaurant's menu, which changes daily, offers plenty of dining options: the daily food at the bar, elegant meals in the main dining room; and culinary products dessert in a private dining room and kitchen, where Donna prepares a tasting menu with dishes of 12-14 and entertains you. FYI: Donna creates his own ham to salami and prashuta, and his sausages, pasta, mozzarella cheese, marmalade and bread make your own. Galileo is 1110 21 th St. Northwest (between streets L & M).

Zengo (city center) – the Latin-Asian hotspot, Zengo (which means "give" to accept) of & # 39; integrates legacy chef Richard Sandavala with his love for Asian fare. Located in the hot zone of the restaurant near the MCI Center, Zengo – this sura & # 39; serious and sophisticated restaurant, partially sleek and sexy lounge. With intriguing joint dishes such as stuffed pickled ginger and empanada, filled Thai chicken – this place is definitely worth checking out! The cocktail menu is one place in Zengo, where her Latin and Asian interest are not connected together – because kapiryni follow the classic martinis and sake. Zengo located at 781 7th St. Northwest (contributions. 7th and St.).

Bistro Tapaq (U Street Street Corridor) – one of the hottest places in DC, this five-story bistro boasts a restaurant, a lounge with a few bars and deadly on the roof terrace (for year-round use and a panoramic view of 360 degrees of the City.). Organizing the flavors of the Mediterranean & # 39; I am from Turkey to Morocco, tapas-style sneakers offers a refined and elegant combination of taste and presentation. Please note: in the door you can feel the "position" because Tapaq really performs a strict no jeans, a dress code without shoes, which are known to be smoothed few feathers. Found in 1336 U St NW (bet 14 and U).

Cabanas (Georgetown) – which offers a high quality genuine Latin American fare coupled with the ability to dine indoors or outdoors, Cabanas – another choice in the heart of Georgetown. Place for outdoor recreation is on the side with palm trees and overlooks the harbor fountain. there are delicious options on the menu that Var & # 39; iruyutstsa from roasted chili on squid and shrimp / scallop seviche with fish cakes and a corn / crab. Do not miss the frozen margarita Manga! If the weather allows it & # 39; ie, try to catch the table. Found on the street 3050 K NW (Thomas Jefferson).

Cafe La Ruche (Georgetown) – This old favorite French (open since 1979), which presents contemporary works of art, flags and old photos scattered on the walls of this building of the 19th century. The menu, which is aware of the fact that you had to try the best quiches that you have ever tasted, the menu also presents traditional French favorites such as potatoes and leeks, and croquet. Cafe La Ruche also offers an excellent wine and delicious desserts – all this can be used in magic recreation area, like a garden that overlooks the cobbled streets of Georgetown. Cafe La Ruche is located at 1039 31 Street Northwest (address: M St. NW).

Tony and Joe & # 39; s Seafood Place (Georgetown) – an institution as old as time itself embankment, it is difficult to imagine a better view around DC, which rests on the banks of the descendant, in this place Harbor (With views of the Kennedy Center, the Key Bridge and the island of Roosevelt) usually recruited everyone who rides on the city's waterfront town on the boat or in any other way. And, it seems as if every young Vashyngtonin finds himself here after work drinks and seafood. Try the hot dip crab, which always allows a good start. Tony and Joe can be found in the 3000 K St NW (on the 30th).

Ceiba (in downtown) – Latin inspiration, which controls the menu and decor in Ceiba. Kitchen rebounds from Brazil, the Yucatan, the Caribbean and Cuba – while the decor boasts Mexican tile floors and tropical murals. Located in the historic building CO (701 to 14 meters north north north north south air outdoors G), "Ceiba" has a layered obscure dining area filled promoters which serves typical Latin American dishes SEVICHE. Snacks like Jamaican crab cakes and foie gras, served with corn pie, you can not miss! Adding this caipirinhas & mojitos – how can you go wrong?

Palm (Dupont Circle) – Some places never change. If you can not find your senator on Capitol Hill, better check The Palm. It is here that the most loyal patrons have long been the most powerful city. A place for negotiation and conclusion of agreements on the school (great) steak as shameful as a restaurant with signature martinis! But you do not need to be a politician to enjoy a lovely meal, the waiters with white jacket, dark suits and high heels. Watch out for Larry King and Tim Russert, both were known. Palma is located at one thousand two hundred twenty-five 19th Street Northwest (Beth N & M Sts NW..).

Taste of Carolina (Shaw District) – feel yourself with Dixie style, but you can not make your way to the south? Try Southern food and hospitality in the best forces in the Taste Carolina. This restaurant falls to the south in a high-style, two-story townhouses turned into a restaurant and bar. Presenting a good meal, the menu offers a variety of options from fried fish sandwiches and BBQ chicken to, to a home pound cake. Bar "Taste Carolina" is definitely buzzing in a happy time, but the best seats in the house are located near the corner of the bay. Keep in mind: the weekend, you can find karaoke, poetry readings and live jazz. A Taste of Carolina is located at 1930 9th Street SW (near T St. NW).

Sequoia Restaurant (Georgetown) – Go through the door to Sequoia, and you enter the land of beauty – beautiful decor (high ceilings, warm lighting and cherry wood), beautiful people (the urban elite a good healing can be found here) and great views (located directly on the waterfront of a descendant). In restaurants, offering space for relaxing outdoors and outdoors, there are three level dining and elegant patio area – where sexy singles swarm to sip cocktails under the white lights. The restaurant serves everything from hamburgers to pure fancy Chilean chybasa. You must try the duck dumplings and crab cakes. Jacket and tie are required. Sequoia is located in 3000 K St. NW (at 30th St. NW).

Ebbitt Grill (downtown) – established in 1856, Grill Old Ebbitt – it is the oldest dining saloon of the city. Located in front of the White House (and a few minutes from the museums in downtown Washington), Old Ebbitt serves American traditional cuisine, offering the largest selection of oysters in the area. Favorite Presidents Grant, Cleveland, Harding and Roosevelt, Old Ebitt offers a daily dish of service for locals and visitors – always a popular meeting place for political insiders, journalists, celebrities and theatergoers. Old Ebbitt netting is on 675 th 15th Street, Northwest (between F and G).

September 11 – the memory of the heart

When I began to write an article on the Tech Tips This week, I was pretty well prepared. I had even the idea of ​​the article, before I sat down to write, and actually even did some research on this topic. However, as I sat at my desk and went into his account Yahoo Instant Messenger, I began to chat with Al, his companions-clever and a good friend in Atlanta. Then I noticed the date and suddenly remembered the day we spent together five years ago.

Now you do not need to remind me, I already knew what it was today. In addition to the day when I got married, happy birthday my children and mothers from the date of birth, there are a few dates that I just can not forget. Today is one of those days.

September 11, 2001, I was driving to work, late as usual. Also, as usual, I was listening on the radio to your favorite classic rock station in Atlanta. After the song ended, the DJ came in and said that nothing new was found on the helicopter, which crashed into one of the World Trade Center towers. She said that the station will break any news, and then continues to play more music. By the time I got to work, the story was quite clear. It was not a helicopter. And it was not only one of the towers.

Arriving at work, we went through al the way to K-Mart, to try to become familiar with what is happening. While we were there, standing in front of a number of TV sets, as well as 20 others, we watched as the first tower collapsing on live television. I breathed the words, "Oh God," as felt my eyes will warm water. Peering into Al, I also noticed the tears that kotsilasya cheek. We had to be on our third cup of coffee and arguing about the best solution to some ridiculous program. Instead, we stood in the K-Mart and watch TV with a lot of strangers who came there to see, too.

I well remember the first time I went to New York. I was lucky enough to be on the box to the left of the plane, and when we started to fly over to the right and from Manhattan, a look at the Statue of Liberty and the forest of buildings behind it was a strange sight. Shopping center towered over the financial district of lower Manhattan. It was in August 2000. A few years later, on my last trip to New York, my hotel was located a few blocks from scratch. Taking a walk around the perimeter of what was once a beacon of building construction and a large shopping center, I was struck by a giant hole that was left.

While we often focus on the New York, let's not forget that the Pentagon was also the aim of the day, and the life was lost, too. The number of lives lost and the history of how it all happened, really sad.

Through everything that happened, and all that is yet to happen, I always comforted brave actions of a few showers in the morning September 11, 2001. Steps taken by passengers aboard United Flight 93, saved the lives of those who have been in the fourth until an unknown target location. They did not try to be heroes, but they saw what was happening and knew what to do. They knew that their lives should end prematurely, so that others may live. They acted on this knowledge, ahead of the hijackers and drove the nose of the aircraft, first in the Pennsylvania field.

Every time a thought comes to Flight 93, I always think of a favorite verse from the Bible: "Greater love has no man than this, that a man laid down his life to his friends. (John 15:13) "Let those brave souls flight 93, and, indeed, all those whose lives have been lost at the Pentagon and in New York, forever calm repose.

As always, if you have any questions or suggestions for future articles, please email me at mike@MikeBryant.com.

History and the Museum of trolleybuses Skrentana urban electric wheelchairs

1. Horse tsyagachka:

Although the locomotive development and the gradual laying roads allowed to cover the distance between the new towns in the constantly reduced time and increased their growth by drawing seven & # 39; families, workers and materials during the mid-19th century – beginning of the 20th century, the inner-city transport was small, except of course, for the horses and a variety of cars and buggies, which he drew. Requires was some small vehicle dalnabytnastsi light duty containing several tens sharply rate that distances between several blocks and a few miles. But, unlike trains, coal turned zadymnym and unfit for such negotiations street.

To this end, although still use horse power, honorary AB Dunning, David R. Randall, George Tracy A. Bennett and Samuel Raub were provided by the charter of 23 March 1865 on the establishment of the People's Street street that connects Scranton city with the surrounding area of ​​Hyde park, with an hourly service in each direction.

The railway company "Scranton and Providence," which held its route from 27 March next year, imitated his job, but was later acquired former competitor and a & # 39; united into one company. Daily service from Scranton to Providence each hour of a 10 percent tariff, although the operation on Sunday, dependent on the requirements of those wishing to go to church.

In spite of reduced travel time schedule is almost was not carved in stone. Indeed, trolleybuses were small, with two opposite benches in the winter the heat was not, the operations that have affected the weather & # 39; e, and intended stops have not been set, leaving the "flag and the board" method for the determination of breaks in the trip.

Traveling in the opposite direction to stoppage mule vehicle pressure in the machine after it has been fastened on the turntable, and then repeated coupling, before going to the route.

Height required order. Drivers soon wore uniforms, heavily traveled lines, leaders need to collect tolls and signaling drivers were installed intended stop and trolley parks expanded.

However, the method was less effective, as the horses were tired and had to feed them and pollute the streets after they had been, and the ratio of machines to the mules were about seven or eight to one.

Adding to this was the head of the disease. What can be considered the black plague of animals, originated in 1872, when the "Big epizaatyka" has spread from Canada to Louisiana, and over the past three weeks in New York were involved in about 2,300 horses that suras & # 39; ozna affected Scranton tram system. It depended on them.

2. The electric trolley:

Traveling on a major US and European cities, where operations on the trolley with electric movement carried out experimentally, but unsuccessfully, Edward B. Sterzhes, who believed that this source will replace the four-legged type, formed the suburban railway company Scranton, signed a contract with Van Depoele Electric Company for the production of Chicago to build a country line of "Green Range" and conclude with the car company "Pullman Car" agreement on its carriage.

Because electric cars have never been developed, they closely reflect those suitable for horses with four wheels and opposite and open platforms, although their plush seats for benches, polished interior walls of mahogany, closed glass windows and lights reflects the decision of the degree of comfort.

Construction of the first step. Conversion was the second in the Van Depoele factory for electrical installation, requiring fencing front platform doors to accommodate the motor and control equipment. The gears and chains combined motor shaft to the front axle, and six bulbs ran on the inside.

Electric power is supplied from the overhead contact wire.

Implementation of the system required the assessment of the central street, connecting power lines and construction of power plants, and it all began July 6, 1886.

As the nucleus of an atom, an innovative company-trolley chose the intersection of Franklin avenues and varnished as the beginning of the route, because it served as a transportation hub Scranton, drawing closer with every horse lines and proximity to the long-range railway, including Delaware, lacquered and Western, Central Railroad of New of York and New Jersey, Ontario and the West. In addition, it was the heart of the city business and theater districts.

Line two and a half miles to the stop Avenue Delaware, where the turntable easier run in the opposite direction.

After the construction, which was completed on November 29, 1886, trolleybuses were delivered Delaware, lacquered and Western railway, transporting them on flat cars, and then, in respect to power, which they replaced, they drew the final distance horses on the tracks, which were laid according to their purpose, before to be transferred to the track of Franklin Avenue.

At the initiative of the motion control lever Charles van Depoelem, trolley number four, the first drive in the country, which departed at 14.30, local time, traveling in the direction of Franklin Street and ate and Skanton received the title of "first electric city".

Compared with horse colleagues, he smoothly accelerated without causing the animals, and its interior was lit for the first time the same power source that moves him.

Car number two soon took an introductory work after a nail, attracted by the magnetic current, attached to the fixture, making it unfit for repair.

Full route, 2.5 miles, was successfully covered the next day number four car.

"After the race on snow, ice and slush, up steep grades and about 45 degrees and turns to the left and to the right," according to David B. Bilge, in his book "From horses to buses: a look back at the city transit Skantona History" (Association of Museums electric city trolley, page 21), "machine number four has reached a turning circle at Green ridge. After turning the car was made way back to the avenue Franklin Avenue on varnished. The operation of the entire line was considered a complete success."

This success is, to be sure, he served as a catalyst for many other lines, including road railway companies "Valley", "Passenger railway company" Scranton "railway company" Nai-August ", towing companies," Scranton "and" Carbondale "craving "Scranton" and "Pitstan." The company and the traction company Lackawanna Valley.

By 1900, about the & # 39 are united and acting under the flag of one of the railway company's Scranton, they did not leave any inch gauge without clicking, turning to the technology to use it any horse predecessors.

Since the dissemination of such track links each area of ​​the city, including many small towns with a carbon patch, demand has demanded big cars, which led to the order of 1897-1904 years on the 35-foot Christmas, double leaders who could work. in any direction without the need for a reorientation of the player. Their crews were motorists and conductors.

The expansion of this transport phenomenon can be recognized by its statistics: for more than 100 miles of trails with a 183-m park trolleybus company "Scranton" has transported 33 million passengers in 1917. A subsidiary of "Scranton" established in 1923, provides services for the expansion to the trolleybus line Washburn Street.

Representing the top designs accessible, in 1929, ten cars ordered by the automotive companies Osgood-Bradley of Wooster, Massachusetts, it had leather seats and were called "electric."

Reorganized in 1934, the transit company Scranton after Insull empire electric railways and power companies, which took her nine years before, declared bankruptcy, originally Scranton Railway Company continued to operate, but the sun is already close to the western horizon for him.

Trip began to decline, and buses that do not require external power sources, increased popularity. The gradual transformation of lines in the bus routes by 1936 had left a little more than 50 miles of trails and a fleet of 100 vehicles. Twelve years later, these figures decreased respectively to 20 and 48.

History, as is often the case, comes full circle. The way the electric trolley has replaced horse, it also replaced the gasoline engine. Suburban Grynbryzh line, which first saw the then new-fangled service, was the last, who gave up her December 18, 1954.

3. Museum of the city of electric carts:

Located in downtown Scranton and divided as a massive parking lot, and in some cases, and shakes as Steamtown National Historic Site, Museum of electric city trolley offers visitors the opportunity to interpret the rich history of the city tram and personally inspect many of his machines.

"The theater has 50 seats, according to the museum," and other exciting exhibits come to life the story of an extensive network, which will allow residents of Northeast Pennsylvania to drive the wheelchair 75 miles. "

A good introduction to it from the & # 39 is a ten-minute film "Trolley: machines that changed our city", which is constantly demonstrated in transit theater, which is the threshold of the exhibits of the museum. This model includes a substation, which demonstrates how the electric power supplied to the trolley, to drive them, and a bearing, the machine which allows to cut the floor test its drive motor 600 volts DC.

Several cars or have been restored or are in the process of it.

Car number 46, for example, has a closed, two-type truck, and was one of 22 built in 1907, the automotive company "St. Louis" for the Philadelphia and Western Railroad, which operates them between 69th street terminal in Upper Darby and Stratford.

Controls four engines General Electric 73C and ride on steel wheels 34 inches in diameter, the length of 51.4 feet, 9.3 feet wide and weighed 82,000 pounds. It made mostly of wood, but using the steel frame of the lower body, he & # 39 is a classic example of the 54-passenger long-distance trucks, which were popular in the early 20th century.

Vehicles 8534, one more a museum piece, was the last of 535 steel single solitary types, built by J. G. Brill of Philadelphia rapid transit company. It can be considered an updated version of the 1500 cars "near side", built in the years 1911 and 1913. Both have provided most of the trolley bus service in Philadelphia after the Second World War.

The last such machine, from which there are only three, was decommissioned in 1957.

Another example of a museum – the car number 801. One of the five orders LVT company in February 1912 to open new lines of separation from the whale to the node Norystaruna in Pennsylvania, the company has built its Jewett Car Company in Newark, Ohio.

Inter & # 39; er of three sections, imitating the elegance of steam cars Pullman era, consisted of a department for motorists, baggage and brass braids equipped men smoking only; main section passenger seat; and toilet with the outside fountain to drink, complete with dazaram for cups, on the far right.

The experience of visiting the trolley can be improved if the drive ten miles to dvuhbalnay road, going from Steamtown Wood station, where his comeback view is enhanced in the era of the many steam locomotives, passenger carriages and freight wagons since. Likely to & # 39 smoke, the smell of soot, bells, shrill whistle and the roar of the tracks.

Of the two working trolley, both of which were painted in burgundy color to reflect the color worn by the first car Scranton, when it opened in 1886, at number 76, which is operated in Philadelphia, it was built in 1926 and remained in service month and a half century.

Pole connected to the power line above him, working on the engine of DC 650 volts. The crew was both motorists and conductor. The tariff for nickel is allowed to travel for days. The entrance was and goes through the middle of the car door.

He initially restored inter & # 39; EASURES has wicker seats, suspension hangers, brass, box for the registration fee and vintage advertising, such as cookies Uneeda Nabisco. Air conditioning consisted of opening windows in summer.

Departing from Steamtown and reaching a speed of 30 miles / h in some areas, trolley Electric City is at once a 19-mile mile Larelnay line, passing through the Radisson hotel, which until 1970 was a great railway Lackawanna station, shaft Dumore coal mine, and in the valley Roryng Brook, a small waterfall.

Next, he enters the winner of the tunnel, constructed between 1904 and 1905. For railway lacquered and Wyoming, the third high-speed electric line railroad that operated between Skantonam and Wilkes-Bar. Pulling 4747 feet in length, it offers a gradual slope from 180 feet below ground at the entrance to 90 feet at the exit.

Breaking of woodland, which passes through the two miles and passes by the siding, trolley stops its way in the store trolley restoration, where riders can view and maintain and repair 23 cars in his collection.

Periodic trips are also planned for the PNC Field box on Mount Installation for the entire season.

Placing on the trolley bus, passengers are sent to the route, returning to the Steamtown station, during which they may have experienced the return to the age-old vehicles, which was neodymium & # 39; emnay part of Scranton as a city.

sources

Biles, David. B. "From the horse-drawn vehicles to buses: a look back at the history of the city transit Scranton." Scranton: Museums Association of urban electric wheelchairs.

Management companies can stimulate the growth of sales?

This may seem critical in our day, but the fact is that the CEOs over the years complaining about the need for large sales. Let it be a small business or a large corporation, the growth – is the king. Numerous studies and numerous personal interviews & # 39; u say that sales growth ranks first or near the top of the biggest challenges faced by CEOs.

So, what are you doing about it?

This is one of the first questions I ask leaders when they tell me that you need to increase sales. Answers interesting shocking. Here are some of my favorites:

  • "We're going to just send it. If the economy comes back, we'll get your share."
  • "I'm not happy about this, but it depends on our leader on sales. If he does not go soon, I'll have to replace it."
  • "We reduce the sales staff. If we can not sell enough, at least, we will spend a little less. And we can weed out lower performers."
  • "We brought the sales team on a three-day training workshop to improve their skills."
  • "We have invested in the CRM system, so we can see what they are working, and more accurate forecasts."
  • "We will reduce the price to at least create some kind of & # 39; the volume."
  • "I would like to get rid of the entire sales team, but people keep telling me that I need them."
  • "I am personally involved in the transaction, to win the victory."

These responses, and those that are currently taking place in your mind, pushed me to the next logical question: "How everything is going so far?"

The overwhelming reaction were such gems as "not very good", "We have spent the money, but did not see any change," and "It's actually worse."

If we have an alternative, and they do not seem to work, WHAT WE RABIM NOW?

Let's start by thinking about how the beliefs and behavior of the general directors contribute, OR, Prior to the sale. Answer the questions below to find out how you are helping sales teams succeed or prevents their improvement.

You, as the CEO, are contributing to a sale?

Answering the 10 questions, you can learn how you, as the CEO, personally affect your sales team and the entire company is experiencing them. Answer the following questions quickly using YES. faror NOT.

  1. Can I build a culture (policies, recognition, stories), which allows the entire company to support the sales team?
  2. I invested in our sales team to give them a competitive advantage?
  3. Or I worked with his team on sales, to understand the important steps that take our clients when evaluating our products and services, and recorded the best approaches to use?
  4. Do I have a clear strategy, where our growth will come determined our most probable customer, and I tell about it throughout the organization?
  5. Or I prompted their sales leaders to understand what behavior and actions lead to sales and supported the deployment of the tools necessary for their effective implementation?
  6. Or I understand that the task of the leader in the sale of a & # 39 is the development of sales teams, and I give a part of their fees to make it happen?
  7. I need to continuously invest in its leader on sales, to be sure that they have access to better education, tools and practices for continuous improvement?
  8. Usually need to do to achieve sales visible to the entire organization, recognizing sellers and those who support the sale?
  9. I believe that the sale – a process that can be taught as compared with skill inherent in certain people?
  10. Or I look at the sale as an investment in the business, rather than to manage expenses?

If most of your answers were YESYou are likely to help your team succeed. Continue to strengthen and maintain the behavior of the leader of sales.

If most of your answers were faryou do some right things, but you need to look more closely at ways to improve.

If most of your answers were NOT, You have the opportunity to make some changes that can have a big impact on improving your sales.

If you want to increase sales, it all starts with you!

Step Pump It

Below are some changes that are made to our customers, and that get results.

  • Publish growth strategy. Give everyone in the company know which client you wish to use and select it as the benefit for the people involved in sales. Follow him the usual link that shows people how their efforts to stimulate sales. You would be surprised how many of your employees connected with people who could be clients.
  • Invest in your sales leaders (if you're doing it). For sale – a discipline like any other function of the organization, and it manages the boss. People who are involved in sales, it is best to produce reliable expectations about what they need to do, how they should behave, how often and what kind of results they should be getting. Most managers have learned to their work on the former leader, who did not learn to do it well. Be clear that their work is not for sale, and to build a team of people who can sell your products and services. Then provide them education and support they need to do it well. If you dedicate part of their compensation to how well they do it, so you are sure to palepshytsesya.
  • Create a step by step way to attract customers, but understand that you can not fix people over the weekend. Enter a methodology that clearly defines what activities help your potential to make effective decisions. Documenting what steps, tools and resources help to increase sales and enhance them over time. No one changes his behavior over the weekend. If this were true, we would all stop smoking, lose weight and hit the ball like Tiger Woods. If you want a new approach adhered to, think of it as the beginning of a few months of training or re-training skills for stable adults. It takes time, and the teacher must teach and train until they formed a new habit.
  • Stop doing manager goalkeeper. When I ask the sales leaders in their biggest problem, they tell me that they do not have time to do everything. When I inform my boss, I hear that "they will have to work harder." When we understand that what they are spending their time, we often find that more than 50% of their time is spent on drawing up of forecasts, while sitting on the stairs, reporting on the latest forecasts, working with the CRM team on the latest update or helping marketing to which the signboard to use the next exhibition. Studies show that when they spend time on-site training of their representatives, sales significantly increased. Cut them administrative time, where you can, and give them the opportunity to focus where they are most needed by teaching your team to be the best.
  • Be proud of your sales team, as you do your products and services. The Internet and the world of products that are obsolete by the time they get to the market, your greatest advantage may be an attractive work with clients. Most sellers want to work in companies that believe, invest and continually develop their sales leaders and teams. If you do not, they know it and they appear when they are talking with your clients. Participate in significant sales. Send an e-mail throughout the company, which is recognized as a key benefit, inform the seller that they are a living source of your cash flow.

A fascinating place that it is all in your control, and it works. And it works in any economy. Your customers are always looking for the best value. sales team that helps its customers make good business decisions, understand their needs, problems and risks, will always have a competitive advantage.

We worked with the learned and witnessed transformational changes that occur when a CEO change how they look on the trading team and its purpose in the organization. Modest investment, new focus and sales philosophy, moving from the top, make your sales team to move confidently and quickly.

Understanding the need to purchase their own insurance policy

Understanding Insurance Claims

insurance plan can save us from problems. Let it be the education plan, health, home, auto, insurance plan against accidents or pension plan. Living in a country where everything is developing rapidly, the policy insurance – a necessity. The absence of these much-needed plans may cause you a lot of trouble. Imagine, what if someone in the family & # 39; and the patient? Payment of hospital bills can cause anxiety, and how you would send their children to school without the education insurance?

Some people have different types of insurance plans to provide for his life and that of his family & # 39; and. However, the insurance application also provides negative feedback to scare people away from the idea of ​​having to purchase an insurance plan. Of course, the insurance plan means benefits, but somehow, asserting that these benefits can be tedious and time consuming. Insurance requirements should not bring us so many problems if we just understand how insurance companies work on our insurance claim. Thus, to fully understand the problem and save us from many troubles that require security, let us look at it.

How to apply 4 significant insurance claims

Filing your auto insurance requirements

1. Rate, or claim custody issues

Before you apply for auto insurance coverage, decide whether you want to apply or not. If you think you can afford to pay the damages, regardless of who is responsible for this, try not before the & # 39; show any claims. What is important, according to an expert in personal insurance, you need to lead a pure insurance.

2. Get the document on road accidents

It is important to document all the details of the incident and get witnesses to back up his story. The police records at the scene – a corresponding document that you must have to support your claim.

3. Apply immediately

You do not need to spend time to file claims. The question of who is responsible, will take care of your insurance company.

4. Wait for the call at any time

Wait for a call from the insurance company of the other driver to interview & # 39; nd you for the version of the incident. Make sure that you document the conversation and do not forget to ask the name of the agent.

5. correct car

Once your claim is approved, you can fix the body of your car in case of damage. The insurance company will assess the damage to the car or send requests to any autoshop at its option, to correct it.

How to apply for home insurance

In the event of a disaster, which left something for you and your & # 39; nd homeless, provide claims to the insurance house. When you apply, be sure to carry your insurance policy. If you could not provide your copy after the disaster, know and remember the name and contact numbers of the insurance company. It is not always important to remember only the name of your agent, because it can be a variety of companies.

Prepare a quick inventory of household

It is always better to shoot video is all you need, whenever you purchase a home insurance plan. Keep a copy of this record and keep it in a repository that is stored outside the home. It is always recommended to keep a safe deposit box for important documents such as insurance policies, property rights, etc.

Report your insurance company as soon as possible

It is important to inform your insurance company as soon as possible due to the fact that you have to take advantage of the loss of use of your policy, if you have the opportunity. It can cover the living expenses of the house, when it is repaired, for example, hotel bills, meals and other living expenses. This gives you the right to obtain immediate cash needed to pay the bills.

Begin to apply

You can not have a claim until all have received. Thus, it will be difficult to have a documented list of your household things, if you do not have access to your damaged home. Only when you can regain access to your home, you will be able to document it properly. If you are waiting for approval of a claim, you can do a little repair, but be sure to write down all your expenses made. Do not make major repairs until your claim will not be approved.

How to hire a contractor for insurance claims

Find a reputable contractor who will take care of the needs of your repair. Many contractors have always wanted to get a chance to take advantage of your anxiety. They can always stretch your budget at the level of thought.

How to file a life insurance claim

Applying for insurance after a loved one is not quite simply death. However, at this point in life you have to be practical. Money you need most of all to pay for funeral expenses, bills and even the needs of the family & # 39; and. It's hard to stay calm and to face all these problems, but we must be grateful, if someone died love prepared you for such times. As vyzhyvtsa, we sometimes experience such things, but life insurance plan designed to worry less and provides some & # 39; u dead, that we did not have to deal with financial problems, we experienced the loss of a loved one.

Find a life insurance policy

Policy with the & # 39 is an important document, provided by the holders. It is very necessary when applying for an insurance claim. Do not forget to look for him, if the deceased did not tell you where he kept it. You may be aware that this is a very important document, so the keeper can save it in a place easily visible and informative. You can look into a plastic container or in any sealed container, large enough for its content. It can also be kept in a small cupboard drawer in your head board or cabinet lamp stand.

If you can not find an insurance policy, but I'm sure that death – the owner of an insurance policy, you may contact address The American Council of Life Insurance (ACLI).For a small amount, ACLI conduct a search to find a policy. address has Pennsylvania 101 Pennsylvania, North State, Washington, 2000 – 500. Be sure to include the size of the envelope with the address that has been in business.

Please contact the company number specified in the policy

Try to immediately contact the contact number or numbers specified in the document. If you personally know an authorized representative or agent, you can also contact them directly and tell him that you want to apply. Agent of the company are always ready to assist you in filing the application. He will provide you with forms necessary for the application. Wait for any instruction, which the insurance company will provide you.

Fill out the necessary forms and submit claims

After receiving the necessary forms required for the application when you apply for insurance claim, fill it with all necessary information. Specify other requirements needed for sending. Death certificate – the most basic of all the requirements that you may need with your application. Decide how you want to receive money from the life of the policy. You can receive income in the form of a lump sum payment or decide to receive it in the form of a monthly pension or just leave the money in the deposit for interest and dividends.

Wait for release of funds

Expect to process your fund requirements will require more than a month, as the insurance company to confirm the information on your application.

How to apply for medical health complaints

If you have to pay medical bills, you have to apply for health insurance. Here are some tips when applying:

Keep a detailed record

Be sure to get all the necessary receipts and account statements issued by your doctor or pharmacist. Summarize the insurer could easily understand. Attach it to your application.

fill out an application

As soon as possible contact the health insurance company. Once you have declared their wish to apply for health insurance, you can get the application directly from them. The application form is easy to fill, but someone from the insurance company will definitely help you if in the questionnaire, there are some items that you do not understand.

Scan or copy of a copy

After filling out the form and sent to the health insurance company is required to scan it or save your copy. This will save you from the inconvenience in the event of loss or error in the filing of documents. You can easily submit it again if necessary. Pre-shipment inspection. Apply as soon as possible. Ask for help or to learn about additional instructions or requirements. Ask how long it takes you to waiting for the results, and be sure to do it on your calendar. If they were not able to contact you on this day, do not forget to immediately contact the health insurance agent.

The leading causes of accidental death

Every year in America is almost 100,000 accidental deaths. The sudden and unexpected passing of a loved one can cause significant emotional and financial troubles of its vyzhyvtsam, and these difficulties can quickly win the individual or family & # 39; S. Depending on the circumstances related to the tragic accident, there may be one or more ways to find financial benefits or compensation that may be due to the satisfaction of needs that arise as a result of accidental death. Life insurance – perhaps best known mechanism by which this can be achieved.

But if the deceased is not subject to political or private use policy provided by his employer, it is not available to victims. Moreover, since the insurance companies that issue these policies are guided by profit, they are interested in finding reasons to refuse to pay claims, even if this is not enough or no reason. Such treatment can be extremely inspiring, if you are struggling with the tragedy, but it is important to remember that you may have other options. Typically, the most significant compensation can be recovered from the illegal trial.

The most common causes of accidental death

Because of the overlap and interaction between the concepts of accidental death and wrongful death case can become quite confusing. Accidental death may result in the absence of violations, but in many cases the negligence of an individual or corporate enterprise promotes or facilitates its dangers. However, this is not always the case. I report the death of a little more simple, because the title suggests the occurrence of death, which was not supposed to happen, and so that was "mistaken."

Not every accidental death deserves prosecution of legal actions for wrongful death, and not every wrongful death seems for accidental death. For example, the murder may be subject to criminal and civil liability with a variety of potential consequences and wine standards. It is much more difficult to achieve standards of guilt required in a murder case (guilt beyond reasonable doubt) than in the wrongful death lawsuit against the (preponderance of the evidence). A qualified and experienced attorney can help you determine the appropriate course of your unique situation, which may lead to the following main causes of accidental death:

  • road accident
  • I give
  • poisoning
  • fire
  • drowning
  • asthma
  • surgical complications
  • Accidental discharge of firearms
  • struck by car
  • electric current

additional attorneys

Patent Attorneys Pennsylvania Lowenthal & Abrams, P.C., can help you explore your legal rights and options during this trial period.

Window treatments – new art?

At a recent seminar Hunter Douglas, which I attended, I found out that I'm an expert to monitor the peace and privacy. I must admit, I was trying to be creative in what I call myself, and how to describe what I do, but I was never called an expert to monitor the peace and privacy. I like to think I'm more of an artist from the tissue. Most people simply functional, when it comes to windows. Your windows can be more than a device for lighting your home or let the cold wind. They can become a work of art. In fact, the window fashion – it's a new art. Most of the people I work with have a small piece of furniture or a composition that a & # 39 is the center of the room. In most residential and family rooms equipped with a & # 39 is the center. All the furniture is drawn to the TV. They are not designed to have a conversation and not urging people to look at each other and communicate. I always suggest that the window was the main point. From this point of view, your eyes go straight to the windows at the entrance to the room. In this case, it is better to have a beautiful window treatment. Most people do not realize that the windows make-up and fresh new paint color – an affordable way to improve a room without buying new furniture and spending thousands.

There is nothing else like custom window treatments and color throughout the house. cloth decoration – affordable luxury at the same time solving the problem of "light and privacy."

Fashionable windows have come a long way. I remember Peter took a blanket on Framptana dormitory window when in college thought it was good. It was … just above the box for milk and boards for bookshelves. Then we finished the "universities" of the department. It was more about privacy and, as they say, light control. Art was something you hang on the wall or on a shelf. Have you ever thought about the window design as about the new art.

Fashion window is now divided into three categories. Functional, decorative, and what I call the category of art. Functional treatment may be rigid treatment, such as a curtain, blinds or shade. You open and close them. Let the light. Keep light. Close them until you put on. Open them, if you are dressed. It's simple. They are usually described as svyatlofiltravanne or darkening the room. Fabric version features – a classic curtains on the cross-bar. Just imagine what you've seen in a hotel room.

You enter into a decorative area when experimenting with colors, textures, fabrics, or when you add a balance or cornice. The decorative windows forms used color and texture combined with new free paints. They do not necessarily have to cover and avoid light. They can be combined with a pair of scissors, lace or new translucent fabrics. Hardware window fashion – is a growing trend, which simply adds to the beauty of the window.

Cornices traditionally hidden, but now, with a new rod and accessories, you can easily create a decorative treatment.

If you combine the elements of functionality and decor, you enter the Fine Arts category. Previously was a "turning point" in the artistic spectrum of scenery. Now the line is blurred. It is perfectly acceptable to have a lush tapestry drapes with satin lining, mixed with cut panels and plantations. It was like a taboo recently as a few years ago. Basically, the rules have changed. The rule is that there are no rules. Marshall McLuhan years ago to define art as anything that can be avoided! Beautiful windows in the order is no longer just for the elite. Competition has reduced prices and many people are fighting for your business. Remember promotional glasses, where the woman asks the seller snobs, why sunglasses are so expensive. He said: "These glasses are talking in French." Large fancy windows no longer "speak French". Anyone who reads this column, may get some fitted windows, create a new focus and transform anything.